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642-145 Implementing Cisco IOS Unified Communications allotment 2 (IIUC2)

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Implementing Cisco IOS Unified

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Cisco imposing Cisco Unified Communications supervisor, allotment 2 v8.0 (CIPT2 v8.0) | killexams.com actual questions with brain dumps

published on Jul 2, 2013  

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Cisco imposing Cisco unified communications manager, half 2 v8 0 (cipt2 v8 0) 642 457 examkill c  

published on Jul 2, 2013  


Cisco : Containerized, Virtualized IOS XR utility Continues to circulation the trade forward | killexams.com actual questions with brain dumps

Cisco weblog > SP360: carrier provider

As they head to MPLS + SDN + NFV World Congress this week, i'm reminded of conversations I actually esteem with service suppliers every the time. They inform me how they necessity complete options to fill their company needs, now not just a slice of a technology stack. They inform me they necessity application that supports an end-to-end structure that's tightly built-in with their OSS/BSS systems, and runs on a complete latitude of hardware. And, they necessity it to be primary to implement and straightforward to use.

it is exactly what they created with Cisco IOS XR. more than 150 provider providers - including one of the greatest net gamers every over the world - esteem deployed their subsequent technology containerized/virtualized IOS XR, which is the richest networking stack obtainable in the marketplace, with trade-leading innovations in IP transport (section Routing), IPv6, features (EVPN), Visibility (Streaming Telemetry), security (MacSec), Programmability (Yang), 5G (clocking/synch) and a all lot extra.

Our IOS XR has three leading areas of innovation:

  • Unparalleled silicon range, running on world category Cisco ASICs as well as merchant silicon
  • Cloud-scale automation, with efficiency, mannequin-based mostly interfaces for software-centric operations
  • subsequent-technology community architectures, with average design patterns that carrier providers can celebrate to leverage unified community textile from data facilities, notable offices, and throughout numerous domains in metro and core networks
  • An sample of this innovation is IOS XR's aid of Linux containers, which they delivered returned in 2015 with IOS XR 6.0. They architected their IOS XR software stack to dash in containers and provide aid for client and third birthday party functions in containers too, which is viable since the utility distribution helping IOS XR is in keeping with Open Embedded Linux. at the identical time, they aligned their deployment and automation capabilities with industry requisites (Netconf/gRPC) as well as server workflows (iPXE, ZTP, Ansible, Chef, Puppet and more). basically, they confirmed IOS XR running as allotment of a Mesos Cluster at MesosCon 2015.

    We additionally made bound IOS XR is obtainable on Cisco and service provider silicon across a wide selection of hardware systems, ranging from 1 RU to multi-chassis programs. It runs in a digital contour aspect on intimate x86 compute systems with the entire feature set and a high-performance information airplane. With assist for actual and virtual, IOS XR gives service providers precise option in their designs, whereas offering a typical operational event end-to-conclusion. they are additionally laser focused on making their application effortless to manufacture expend of and enforce. we're designing with ruthless ease in intellect. you can study extra about complete IOS XR capabilities on https://xrdocs.github.io or follow @xrdocs on twitter.

    i'm so pleased with their crew for his or her inveterate improvements in application that launched the trade to modern heights returned in 2015 and silent a ways outpaces the leisure available on the market nowadays.

    if you are attending MPLS+SDN+NFV World Congress manufacture confident to register for the event online for Cisco's workshop to gain knowledge of more about IOS XR and meet their consultants.

    Tags:

    How attain I configure QoS for VoIP? | killexams.com actual questions with brain dumps

    notice:Following templates are coming from Cisco documentation as Cisco recommends. however you can moreover necessity to tweak or adjust inescapable settings so as to meet your particular needs.

    LAN nice of carrier Templates

    Overview

    The flat of this document is to silhouette the autochthonous enviornment community (LAN) pleasant of service templates that might be implemented by you Unified Communications engineers. This doc consists of simple configuration particulars that should be adopted every the course through any UC deployment. The configurations contained inside this doc are in keeping with Ciscos pleasant of carrier SRND and Unified Communications supervisor SRND. For a finished list of configuration details, reference the Cisco satisfactory of provider SRND and Cisco Unified Communications supervisor SRND.

    The configurations in this document may silent be considered because the bottom line for any implementation and should be covered in any implementation as a allotment of the prevalent birth procedure. LAN traps should be carried out after implementing the QoS to manufacture confident that preempt markings are being set and maintained during the business.

    the following devices are lined during this FAQ* catalyst 3550 Switches* catalyst 2960/2970/3560/3750 Switches* catalyst 4500 Switches with autochthonous IOS as much as Supervisor Engine 7E* catalyst 6500 Switches with autochthonous IOS

    Markings

    here markings are used to designate site visitors, per the Cisco SRND. These are the markings that you will account for in the base skilled services implementation pricing.

    smooth customers

    When IP telephones are deployed at the side of other tender customers, similar to CIPC, CUVA, or CUPC, then it is notable to manufacture inescapable the preempt marking of soppy customer UC site visitors. this is accomplished by utilizing access lists and service guidelines.

    The voice allotment of a appellation can be labeled in a sole of two approaches, reckoning on the category of call in growth. A voice-best (or average) mobile call would esteem the media categorized as CoS 5 (IP priority 5 or PHB EF), whereas the audio channel of a video convention would esteem the media labeled as CoS four (IP priority four or PHB AF41). the entire Cisco IP Video Telephony products adhere to the Cisco company QoS Baseline normal, which requires that the audio and video channels of a video call each be marked as CoS four (IP priority four or PHB AF41). The reasons for this suggestion include, however aren't limited to, here:* To maintain lip-sync between the audio and video channels* To provide part classes for audio-only calls and video calls

    Cisco Unified personal Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video capabilities are each voice and video capable, which gifts two challenges when using the ACL and coverage map for packet classification and DSCP re-marking. First, Cisco Unified personal Communicator makes expend of the equal IP address and UDP port gain to supply voice and video streams. The ACL it's in keeping with IP tackle and port quantity is not granular sufficient to differentiate a voice appellation from a video appellation in order to celebrate applicable DSCP re-marking. 2nd, Cisco IP Communicator uses the identical IP exploit and UDP port latitude to source its voice packets. in a similar fashion, the ACL is not granular enough to differentiate the voice flow of an audio-best call from the voice traipse of a video name. for this reason, using the ACL and policy-map for packet classification and DSCP re-marking is not a feasible QoS solution for application-based endpoints.

    as a result of both Cisco Unified own Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video capabilities result their signaling and media packets appropriately as they ingress the community, Cisco recommends configuring the policy map to esteem faith the DSCP marking of incoming traffic and exercise traffic policing and rate limiting.

    1. catalyst 3550

    The catalyst 3550 change mode is commonly present in the entry layer of the LAN. This mannequin supports a 1P3Q1T queuing model.

    international instructions

    These commands are entered on a global stage and are integral in every QoS implementations. they're used to effectively map COS and DSCP values as well as to associate these markings with the preempt interface queue and threshold.

    Trunk Port instructions

    Trunk ports, which might encompass connections to different switches, in addition to Dot1Q connections to routers, should be configured to believe the DSCP markings from the neighboring gadget.

    Voice Servers, WAN Routers, Gateways

    commonly speaking, contraptions akin to voice servers, WAN routers, and voice gateways can be depended on, similar to trunk ports.

    IP telephones without smooth shoppers

    When IP phones are deployed in an environment without different elegant valued clientele similar to CIPC, CUVA, or CUPC, then the configuration for these access ports can be to readily esteem assurance the COS of the IP telephones. If a consumer can esteem any tender consumers in the enterprise, it is recommended that you follow the configuration template for IP telephones with soft clients because it isn't viable to understand precisely which ports may or may moreover not esteem soft customers active.

    IP phones with elegant valued clientele

    as a result of both Cisco Unified very own Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video competencies result their signaling and media packets correctly as they ingress the network, Cisco recommends configuring the coverage map to believe the DSCP marking of incoming traffic and follow traffic policing and rate limiting. it's going to be famous that this doc includes IP cellphone exploit traffic for SCCP, secure SCCP, and SIP implementations.

    The customer can resolve on to add extra classes for different purposes that plunge into the majority, Transactional, or Interactive courses corresponding to Oracle, FTP, and so forth by configuring extra ACLs and sophistication-maps. You should be creating courses for voice and video. every different traffic now not blanketed in these classes could be policed at 5Mbps. This helps protect the ambiance from DoS attacks, and should no longer esteem an result on official site visitors.

    Policers

    due to the fact that they are going to be marking site visitors from PCs to greater courses inside the QoS guidelines, they should manufacture confident that they don't open the infrastructure up to a DoS assault from these PCs through permitting them to transmit greater records than vital in each and every category. here is accomplished with policers. by means of policing unexpected packets to DSCP eight (scavenger), they now esteem made extreme packets with policed markings a dwindle priority than 0.

    access Lists

    access lists (ACLs) are used to properly establish site visitors with the remonstrate to deserve to be marked at the point of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN segment to LAN phase, as each the voice VLAN and information VLAN may fluctuate from status to vicinity inside a deployment.

    class-Maps

    classification-Maps are created to vicinity the site visitors recognized through the access lists into the applicable QoS courses. The 3550 change can classify according to VLAN identification, so hierarchy classes are utilized for this swap. In here illustration, VV refers to the Voice VLAN identity.

    coverage-Maps

    policy-Maps are created in an endeavor to consume motion on traffic inside a class. In these examples, the policers anticipate that the voice most effective calls will expend G.711 and that video calls will not exceed 384k. If a voice codec with a higher bandwidth was used, similar to G.722, the policer for the voice classification would necessity to be altered to 320k, as a substitute of 128k.

    IP cellphone and pc Ports

    so as to invoke the classifications and policies, the policy-map ought to be applied to the ingress of every IP telephone and laptop ports.

    2. catalyst 2960/2970/3560/3750

    These catalyst switch models are frequently create in the access layer of the LAN, besides the fact that children in some deployments, the 3750 is used within the distribution stage. These models abet a 1P3Q3T queuing mannequin.

    international instructions

    These instructions are entered on a worldwide stage and are needful in every QoS implementations. they're used to competently map COS and DSCP values as well as to associate these markings with the applicable interface queue and threshold.

    Trunk Port instructions

    Trunk ports, which could consist of connections to different switches, in addition to Dot1Q connections to routers, should be configured to esteem assurance the DSCP markings from the neighboring equipment.

    Voice Servers, WAN Routers, Gateways

    commonly speakme, devices similar to voice servers, WAN routers, and voice gateways can moreover be depended on, similar to trunk ports.

    IP telephones without soft consumers

    When IP telephones are deployed in an atmosphere devoid of different elegant shoppers similar to CIPC, CUVA, or CUPC, then the configuration for these access ports may moreover be to simply esteem assurance the COS of the IP telephones. If a shopper could esteem any smooth shoppers in the business, it's advised that you just celebrate the configuration template for IP phones with gentle clients because it is not viable to know precisely which ports may additionally or may additionally not esteem soft valued clientele energetic.

    IP phones with smooth customers

    as a result of both Cisco Unified own Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video expertise result their signaling and media packets correctly as they ingress the network, Cisco recommends configuring the coverage map to esteem assurance the DSCP marking of incoming traffic and exercise site visitors policing and cost limiting. it'll be famous that this document includes IP cell control traffic for SCCP, relaxed SCCP, and SIP implementations.

    The client can resolve on so as to add extra classes for different purposes that plunge into the bulk, Transactional, or Interactive classes comparable to Oracle, FTP, and many others through configuring further ACLs and sophistication-maps. You can be growing classes for voice and video. every other site visitors no longer included in these courses might be policed at 5Mbps. This helps offer protection to the atmosphere from DoS assaults, and may no longer esteem an result on legit site visitors.

    Policers

    on the grounds that we're going to be marking site visitors from PCs to larger courses within the QoS policies, they necessity to manufacture inescapable that they attain not open the infrastructure as much as a DoS bombard from these PCs by using enabling them to transmit greater records than integral in each class. here is finished with policers. with the aid of policing unexpected packets to DSCP 8 (scavenger), we've made extreme packets with policed markings a lessen precedence than 0.

    entry Lists

    entry lists (ACLs) are used to accurately identify traffic which will deserve to be marked on the point of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN section to LAN section, as both the voice VLAN and records VLAN can moreover disagree from locality to status within a deployment.

    category-Maps

    category-Maps are created to location the traffic recognized with the aid of the entry lists into the acceptable QoS classes. a category-map is created for every site visitors classification for which an ACL turned into created.

    policy-Maps

    policy-Maps are created so as to consume action on traffic inside a class. In these examples, the policers anticipate that the voice most effective calls will expend G.711 and that video calls will not exceed 384k. If a voice codec with a better bandwidth become used, equivalent to G.722, the policer for the voice classification would necessity to be altered to 320k, instead of 128k.

    IP phone and computer Ports

    so as to invoke the classifications and guidelines, the policy-map esteem to be utilized to the ingress of every IP telephone and computing device ports.

    3. catalyst 4500 Sup II to Sup IV

    These catalyst change models can moreover be present in the entry, distribution, or core layers of the LAN. These fashions assist a 1P3Q1T queuing mannequin.

    global instructions

    These instructions are entered on a worldwide stage and are vital in every QoS implementations. they're used to thoroughly map COS and DSCP values as well as to associate these markings with the acceptable interface queue and threshold.

    Trunk Port instructions

    Trunk ports, which could consist of connections to different switches, in addition to Dot1Q connections to routers, should be configured to confidence the DSCP markings from the neighboring equipment.

    quick Ethernet

    Gigabit Ethernet

    Voice Servers, WAN Routers, Gateways

    frequently speakme, devices reminiscent of voice servers, WAN routers, and voice gateways will moreover be trusted, comparable to trunk ports.

    fast Ethernet

    Gigabit Ethernet

    IP telephones without tender purchasers

    When IP phones are deployed in an atmosphere with out other tender customers such as CIPC, CUVA, or CUPC, then the configuration for these access ports may moreover be to simply esteem assurance the COS of the IP phones. in case you will esteem any gentle consumers in the commercial enterprise, it's suggested that you celebrate the configuration template for IP phones with tender shoppers because it isn't viable to understand exactly which ports might moreover or may moreover now not esteem gentle consumers lively.

    speedy Ethernet

    Gigabit Ethernet

    IP telephones with gentle shoppers

    because each Cisco Unified very own Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video edge result their signaling and media packets appropriately as they ingress the community, Cisco recommends configuring the coverage map to esteem faith the DSCP marking of incoming traffic and exercise site visitors policing and expense limiting. it's going to be referred to that this doc contains IP telephone manage site visitors for SCCP, cozy SCCP, and SIP implementations.

    which you could elect to add extra courses for other purposes that plunge into the majority, Transactional, or Interactive classes similar to Oracle, FTP, and so on by using configuring extra ACLs and sophistication-maps. You could be creating courses for voice and video. every other site visitors not included in these classes might be policed at 5Mbps. This helps protect the environment from DoS assaults, and should not esteem an result on respectable site visitors.

    Policers

    seeing that they are going to be marking traffic from PCs to larger courses inside the QoS policies, they deserve to ensure that they attain not open the infrastructure up to a DoS bombard from these PCs through allowing them to transmit more statistics than faultfinding in each type. here is carried out with policers. by policing unexpected packets to DSCP eight (scavenger), they esteem made extreme packets with policed markings a dwindle precedence than 0.

    access Lists

    access lists (ACLs) are used to effectively determine traffic in an endeavor to deserve to be marked on the constituent of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN section to LAN section, as both the voice VLAN and facts VLAN might moreover disagree from vicinity to status inside a deployment.

    category-Maps

    classification-Maps are created to status the traffic identified by the access lists into the preempt QoS classes. a category-map is created for each and every site visitors category for which an ACL was created.

    coverage-Maps

    coverage-Maps are created as a course to consume motion on traffic inside a category. In these examples, the policers anticipate that the voice most effective calls will expend G.711 and that video calls will now not exceed 384k. If a voice codec with a better bandwidth was used, akin to G.722, the policer for the voice classification would deserve to be altered to 320k, as a substitute of 128k.

    IP phone and workstation Ports

    with the remonstrate to implement the classifications and policies, the coverage-map necessity to be applied to the ingress of every IP cell and computing device ports.

    FastEthernet

    Gigabit Ethernet

    four. catalyst 4500 Sup VI-E

    These catalyst switch fashions may moreover be create in the access, distribution, or core layers of the LAN. These fashions champion a 1P3Q1T queuing model.

    world instructions

    These commands are entered on a global flat and are vital in every QoS implementations. they're used to properly map COS and DSCP values as well as to affiliate these markings with the applicable interface queue and threshold.

    desk Map

    entry Lists

    access lists (ACLs) are used to appropriately identify traffic that will necessity to be marked at the factor of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN section to LAN segment, as each the voice VLAN and statistics VLAN may moreover gain from locality to status inside a deployment.

    classification Maps

    coverage Maps

    access Ports

    Trunk Ports

    5. catalyst 4500 Sup 7-E

    The per-port/per-VLAN policing model is almost the equal for the catalyst 4500-E Supervisor 6-E, apart from that it does not require a worldwide policed-DSCP map and as a consequence the policing instructions are a slight bit different; moreover no believe-DSCP observation is required on the interface(s)

    information Vlan Interfaces

    Voice Vlan Interfaces

    6. catalyst 4500: Supervisor V-10GE

    6.1. Per-Port UBRL (user-based fee Limiting)

    UBRL adopts microflow policing potential to dynamically gain knowledge of traffic flows and fee confine every piquant movement to someone fee and, as such, is a enormously beneficial and efficient policing device, principally on the distribution ayer in a medianet campus network.

    UBRL is available on Supervisor Engine V-10GE with NetFlow support. UBRL can be utilized to ingress site visitors on routed interfaces and is customarily used in environments where a per-user, granular expense limiting mechanism is required, reminiscent of at the distribution layer, to give a second line of policing defense within the campus. fondness other policers, UBRL can moreover be used to drop or commentary exceeding flows.

    A stream is defined via five-tuples (IP source tackle, IP vacation spot tackle, IP protocol field, Layer 4 protocol source, and destination ports), which can be the identical for each packet within the flow. circulate-primarily based policers follow a sole policy to discrete flows while not having to specify the virtually-infinite tuple-combinations. UBRL can moreover be utilized with source or vacation spot circulation masks; these masks follow an aggregate microflow policing policy to dissimilar flows sharing the selfsame source or IP destination addresses.

    in the per-port UBRL model, a class map fits on a microflow basis and aggregates these through source addresses. Then a policer applies an mixture confine to every microflows sharing a typical supply IP tackle, remarking site visitors in excess of the policing cost.

    Remarking is performed by course of configuring a policed-DSCP map with the international configuration command qos map dscp policed, which specifies which DSCP values are topic to remarking (if out-of-profile) and what these values should be remarked to (which within the case of scavenger class QoS policies, the remarking expense is CS1/DSCP 8).

    UBRL is supported on Layer three interfaces and might be applied on both a per-port or per-port/per-VLAN-groundwork

    Per-Port UBRL Configuration sample on a catalyst 4500 Supervisor V-10GE

    6.2. Per-Port/Per-VLAN UBRL (consumer-primarily based expense Limiting)

    In distinction with the previous instance, if the campus distribution obstruct is the expend of a Layer 2/Layer three design, and as such has Layer 2 trunked interfaces (TenGigabitEthernet 1/1 and 1/2) connecting it to the access layer switches, then UBRL can moreover be applied on a per-port/per-VLAN groundwork. in this case, part UBRL guidelines may moreover be utilized to each VLAN traversing the trunked interfaces by course of per-port/per-VLAN UBRL policies as every VLAN is routed in the course of the swap.

    To spotlight policy flexibility, further stages of classification are blanketed in this 2d UBRL instance (which by the course can moreover be utilized to the per-port UBRL model). instead of applying a blanket UBRL policy to every endpoints, part UBRL polices may moreover be applied to various kinds of endpoints or application-and-endpoint-mixtures. as an instance, VoIP from Cisco IP telephones within the VVLAN can be cost restricted to 128 Kbps, while signaling traffic from these endpoints can be confined to 32 kbps. in a similar way, TelePresence endpoints within the VVLAN (which result their media flows to CS4) can be restricted to 25 Mbps. every other endpoint-generated site visitors within the VVLAN can be limited to 32 kbps per endpoint.

    equivalent coverage granularity can be applied to the DVLAN policer, if preferred. however in this example, a simplified DVLAN policer is applied to every flows to manufacture confident that any DVLAN endpoint transmitting at more than 5% capacity (an illustration price) of the entry facet 10/100/a thousand switch ports are discipline to statistics plane policing/scavenger class QoS.

    Static DSCP-have faith is configured on the physical ports and the per-port/per-VLAN UBRL policers are utilized to their respective VLANs within the trunked interface.

    Per-Port/Per-VLAN UBRL Configuration instance on a catalyst 4500 Supervisor V-10GE

    7. catalyst 6500 autochthonous IOS

    These catalyst change fashions will moreover be create in the distribution or core layers of the LAN. The queuing formulation is directly elegant upon the line cards. check with the Cisco QoS SRND or line card datasheet on Cisco website documentation to ensure that the revise queuing formula is configured on the swap.

    global instructions

    These instructions are entered on a worldwide degree and are vital in every QoS implementations. they're used to safely map COS and DSCP values as well as to associate these markings with the preempt interface queue and threshold.

    Trunk Port instructions

    Trunk ports, which may consist of connections to different switches, as well as Dot1Q connections to routers, should be configured to esteem faith the DSCP markings from the neighboring device. moreover, with autochthonous IOS, the queue configurations are moreover made on the precise interfaces and are stylish upon the transmit queue aid of the road cards.

    2Q2T Tx Line cards

    1P2Q1T Tx Line playing cards

    1P2Q2T Tx Line playing cards

    1P3Q1T Tx Line cards

    1P3Q4T Tx Line playing cards

    1P3Q8T Tx Line cards

    1P7Q4T Tx Line cards

    1P7Q8T Tx Line cards

    Voice Servers, WAN Routers, Gateways

    commonly speaking, gadgets corresponding to voice servers, WAN routers, and voice gateways may moreover be depended on, similar to trunk ports.

    2Q2T Tx Line cards

    1P2Q1T Tx Line cards

    1P2Q2T Tx Line playing cards

    1P3Q1T Tx Line playing cards

    1P3Q8T Tx Line playing cards

    1P7Q8T Tx Line playing cards

    entry Lists

    access lists (ACLs) are used to appropriately establish site visitors in order to deserve to be marked at the constituent of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN section to LAN section, as each the voice VLAN and records VLAN might moreover gain from locality to location inside a deployment.

    category Maps

    coverage Maps

    Gigabit Ethernet IP cellphone and laptop Ports

    with a purpose to invoke the classifications and guidelines, the coverage-map necessity to be applied to the ingress of every IP addresses.

    2Q2T Tx Line playing cards

    1P2Q1T Tx Line cards

    1P2Q2T Tx Line cards

    1P3Q1T Tx Line playing cards

    1P3Q4T Tx Line playing cards

    1P3Q8T Tx Line cards

    1P7Q4T Tx Line playing cards

    1P7Q8T Tx Line playing cards

    Per-Port Microflow Policing model

    Microflow policing dynamically learns traffic flows and rate limits each and every unique circulation to an individual fee and as such, is a incredibly helpful and productive policing tool, above every at the distribution layer in a medianet campus community.

    Microflow policing can be utilized to ingress site visitors on routed interfaces and is usually utilized in environments where a per-person, granular expense limiting mechanism is required equivalent to those of on the distribution layer which to supply a 2nd-line of policing protection in the campus. fondness other policers, microflow policing will moreover be used to drop or statement exceeding flows.

    Microflow policers are enabled with the police circulate policy-map type-motion command. A traipse is described by 5-tuples (IP supply tackle, IP vacation spot handle, IP protocol field, Layer four protocol supply, and destination ports), which might be the equal for every packet in the circulation. Microflow policers follow a sole coverage to discrete traffic flows, while not having to specify the well-nigh-infinite tuple combinations. Microflow policing can even be utilized with source or destination circulate masks (with the masks src-only and mask dest-best not obligatory key words, respectively). These masks then exercise an mixture microflow policing coverage to distinct flows sharing the identical source or IP destination addresses.

    within the per-port microflow policing model, a movement-primarily based policer is utilized with a mask src-most effective alternative and applies an aggregate restrict to every microflows sharing a common supply IP handle, remarking traffic in extra of the policing cost.

    Remarking is carried out by configuring policed-DSCP maps with the world configuration commands mls qos map policed-dscp regular-burst (which specifies the exceeding remarking action) and mls qos map policed-dscp max-burst (which specifies the violating remarking action, in the case of a twin rate policer). These commands specify which DSCP values are territory to remarking if out-of-profile and what expense these should silent be remarked as (which within the case of records aircraft policing/scavenger type QoS policies, this value is CS1/DSCP eight).

    even if sole cost policers are used, it is recommended to configure the mls qos map dscp policed max-burst markdown map, because the maximum_burst_bytes parameter for the policer is set to equal to the normal_burst_bytes parameter, until explicitly targeted in any other case. In different phrases, the PIR is set to equal the CIR, until explicitly distinct in any other case, and consequently the exceed-motion policed-dscp-transmit keyword phrases explanations PFC QoS to result traffic down DSCP values as defined via the policed-dscp max-burst markdown map (and not the policed-dscp standard-burst markdown map).

    Per-Port Microflow Policing Configuration instance on a catalyst 6500

    Per-VLAN Microflow Policing model

    In contrast with the outdated instance, if the campus distribution obstruct is using a Layer 2/Layer three design, and as such has Layer 2 trunked interfaces (TenGigabitEthernet 3/1 and 3/2) connecting it to the access layer switches, then microflow policing will moreover be applied on a per-VLAN foundation. during this case, part microflow policing policies will moreover be utilized to every VLAN.

    To highlight policy flexibility, further ranges of classification are included in this second microflow policing illustration. incidentally these additions can even be applied to the per-port microflow policing model. in its status of applying a blanket microflow policer to every endpoints, part microflow policers may moreover be utilized to various kinds of endpoints or application-and-endpoint-combos. as an example, VoIP from Cisco IP phones in the VVLAN can be policed to 128 Kbps, whereas signaling traffic from these endpoints can be policed to 32 kbps. similarly, TelePresence endpoints in the VVLAN (which result their media flows to CS4) may moreover be policed to 25 Mbps. every different endpoint-generated traffic within the VVLAN may moreover be policed to 32 kbps per endpoint.

    similar policy granularity may moreover be utilized to the DVLAN policer, if preferred. although in this instance, a simplified DVLAN policer is utilized to every flows to be confident that any DVLAN endpoint transmitting at greater than 5% aptitude (an sample value) of the access aspect 10/one hundred/a thousand switch ports are discipline to facts aircraft policing/scavenger type QoS.

    Per-VLAN Microflow Policing Configuration illustration on a catalyst 6500

    Voice Gateways

    in an endeavor to manufacture inescapable true finish to conclusion QoS throughout the environment, the voice gateways ought to be configured to accurately result manage and bearer traffic sourced from their strategies, together with MGCP, H.323, and SIP.

    MGCP Gateways

    by using default, MGCP gateways result bearer site visitors with DSCP EF and manage traffic with AF31. this is not in keeping with existing requisites. here adjustments may silent be made to every deployed MGCP gateways.

    H.323/SIP Gateways

    through default, H.323 and SIP dial-friends result bearer site visitors with DSCP EF and control traffic AF31. here is no longer consistent with latest requisites. The celebrate changes may silent be made to VOIP dial-friends on every deployed H.323 and SIP gateways.

    WAN powerful of provider

    when you try to assure site visitors service over long distance involving WAN circuits such as factor-to-aspect, MPLS, and Metro Ethernet; then there esteem to be QoS implementation on your WAN gateway of every ends of your location. additionally, your WAN QoS implementation ought to match QoS specification your provider issuer makes expend of to maintain end-to-end QoS provider.

    As illustration, let's command you esteem got aspect-to-factor 1 Gbps Metro Ethernet circuit out of your carrier issuer to interconnect two of your areas. The carrier company has specification that 5 Mbps is inescapable for class of provider (CoS) priority 5 (EF) site visitors, 5 Mbps is inescapable for CoS precedence 2; whereas the ultimate bandwidth is freely used for CoS default site visitors.

    Let's assume you esteem got IP cellphone that uses DSCP EF 5 or CoS 5 of UDP port latitude 16384 - 32767 for voice traffic and makes expend of DSCP AF forty one (CS three) or CoS 3 of SIP (UDP and TCP port gain 5060 - 5061) and SCCP (TCP port latitude 2000 - 2002) for signalling traffic. within LAN, you typically let these specification as default while setting every LAN change access and trunk ports to well known these traffic. as soon as the site visitors is headed to the aspect-to-element circuit, then in some course you ought to regulate the traffic specification in case you intend to match your traffic specification with the carrier provider specification.

    expect you want to utilize the carrier provider CoS 5 for the voice site visitors, CoS 2 for the signalling, and ultimate bandwidth is utilize for different site visitors equivalent to e-mail, internet, and file sharing. hence because the traffic is ready to evanesce away one vicinity over the aspect-to-factor circuit to gain your different vicinity, you should map your present CoS 5 site visitors to the provider company CoS 5, map your present CoS three site visitors to the provider provider CoS 2, and map remaining traffic to the carrier company CoS default traffic.

    When the traffic is already going over the point-to-factor circuit from one status and arrive at the other place, you necessity set your traffic lower back to its customary specification as a course to wholesome your traffic specification. hence because the traffic arrives on the different region, you deserve to map the service company CoS 5 traffic to the original CoS 5 traffic, map the carrier issuer CoS 2 to the original CoS 3, and map terminal traffic as default site visitors.

    As you may notice that these WAN QoS mapping happens for your WAN gateway whereas LAN QoS mapping happens on your LAN. Following is one respond how the WAN QoS mapping and configuration eye like. the credence here is that your WAN gateway is a router using GigabitEthernet 0/0/0 port to hook up with the WAN circuit.

    for more info involving these QoS commands, consume a eye at birthright here Cisco hyperlink.Configuring the Modular property of carrier

    instance community Design and Implementation

    The tips posted here's a summarized edition of the Cisco AVVID QoS Design guide. The grownup who posted here is now not liable for any community complications or any distress led to with the aid of configuring their router to here specification. If unsure, open up a Cisco TAC case which a Cisco Engineer will gather in contact to aid you result in oblige or troubleshoot your design or concern respectively. You may additionally demand the Cisco discussion board neighborhood for any assistance however group accept no liability for any recommendations made which might be then implemented.

    The illustration beneath is using a Cisco 79xx IP cell, 2924 swap (12.0(5)XU EN, and a 2600 Router (12.2(11)T IP/FW/IDS PLUS IPSEC 56). be inescapable the types of IOS that you simply're working assist the commands used before enforcing in a creation ambiance. It additionally assumes that you are the expend of part VLANs for statistics and voice (VLAN a hundred for records, and 101 for voice).

    This instance assumes the following community setup:

    Configuring the 2924 swap:

    The above port configuration allows for both voice and information traffic from part vlans. Cisco IP phones immediately abet 802.1q trunking and 802.1p COS tagging, so that they can tag every outgoing voice traffic with an L2 COS of 5, and a L3 IP precedence of 5. The 'switchport priority prolong cos 0' ensures that every data site visitors has it's L2 COS tag re-classified as 0. this can ensure a computer connected to the phone is not additionally classifying its site visitors.

    moreover, if your change supports inline energy, add here to the above configuration: 'energy inline auto'

    note:The 'pace auto' command is extremely vital. Cisco IP telephones default to auto-negotiation for hurry and duplex. If the swap port is determined to 100baseT full-duplex, the IP cellphone immediately sets its port to 100baseT half-duplex, inflicting a duplex mismatch.

    Configuring the 2600 router

    the first issue they should attain is define access-lists to in shape their voice traffic. they will create 2 prolonged ACLs, one for the voice RTP site visitors, and one for the voice signaling traffic.

    For Skinny, H.323, MGCP

    For SIP/IAX/IAX2:

    be aware:You can moreover additionally expend a 'enable ip 1.1.1.0 0.0.0.255 any' command on the signaling entry-record to in shape every hosts in a specific subnet, assuming every IP phones are on the identical subnet and their personal vlan.

    subsequent, they create classification maps for each and every type of traffic.

    Then create a policy map for the classes:

    The policy-map on the router areas every voice site visitors into the priority Queue, which is given 240kbps of bandwidth. every signaling site visitors is in a class-based mostly queue with 16kbps of bandwidth. And every different traffic is queued using Weighted just Queuing.

    To determine how an poverty-stricken lot bandwidth to provide to voice traffic:number of simultaneous calls X eighty (for g711u)variety of simultaneous calls X 11 (for g729)

    finally, apply the policy to the interface:

    be aware:if you're the expend of sub-interfaces, applying the coverage to the fa0/0 interface will additionally celebrate it to every sub-interfaces (i.e. fa0/0.1, fa0/0.2 etc.) To apply a QoS service-coverage to a particular sub-interface check with this Cisco hyperlink.applying QoS facets to Ethernet Sub-interfaces

    As Qos is generally configured on outgoing site visitors, it'll assist you probably esteem exploit over either side of the link. that you could additionally follow cost limiting to inbound traffic in case you so select, besides the fact that children it will most effective toil with TCP traffic.

    This fee-limit command line will enable no more than 1408kbps via; so that any extra could be dropped. again, this best works for TCP site visitors, seeing that dropped packets will occasions the sender to lower back off and try again slower.

    -b

    Discussions

    »[Config] Configuring QOS on 2960 for VOIP»[HELP] Enabling QoS on 4500 switch»[HELP] Route Maps query»[HELP] VOIP and statistics site visitors with qos and vlan


    642-145 Implementing Cisco IOS Unified Communications allotment 2 (IIUC2)

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    Having laid out my views partially I, let me whirl to the exact information concerning hybrids — each from an environmental and pecuniary viewpoint.

    How attain carbon emissions per mile driven examine for various cars? The Volt is expected to be “under $30,000” with a 1.0L engine. evaluate this to the Corolla, with a 1.8Lengine (peak hp of 126; 31 mpg) and a expense of $14,four hundred. It’s expense noting that this is within the optimistic, no-gasoline-use scenario for the Volt, computed below along with carbon emissions for the Volt working on cellulosic ethanol and gasoline, and emissions for similar-sized ICE automobiles. questions on the Volt’s exact usage patterns stay: what number of americans will recharge prevalent? how many of total miles can be on the grid, and what percentage on fuel?

    2010 2017 2017 (with 50% enlarge in ICE mpg effectivity) automobileCO2 Emissions — grams/ mile month-to-month cost (automobile+gasoline) CO2 Emissions — grams/ mile monthly cost (automobile+gasoline) CO2 Emissions — grams/ mile month-to-month permeate (vehicle+gasoline) Toyota Prius 238 $490 238 $490 159 $468 GM Volt On electrical energy144 $623 a hundred and forty four $623 144 $623 GM Volt Cellul. E85 – – 55 $641 37 $628 GM Volt gasoline handiest 219 $661 219 $661 146 $641 GM Volt gas+Elec (1:1) 182 $642 181 $642 a hundred forty five $632 Toyota Corolla (ICE Engine) 353 $385 353 $385 235 $353 Toyota Corolla (Hypothetical FFV version) 282 (Corn E85) $387 88 (Cellul. E85) $355 58 (Cellul. E85) $334

    notice: A hypothetical “plug-in Prius” with a Volt-sized 16kWh battery would probably permeate more than the Volt. therefore the above evaluation of a plug-in Volt and a hybrid Prius is unfair to the GM Volt. The monthly can permeate comprises the month-to-month amortized permeate of buy (7.5 percent personal loan — fully financed over 5 years) + permeate of gas (1,000 miles/month). Battery cost of $7,600 (at $400kWh + $1,200 control) in 2010 and $four,000 ($200kWh + $800 handle) in 2017 is covered within the Volt buy rate of $30,000 — these battery can permeate estimates are forty-60 p.c dwindle than current estimates of $700-1000kWh and automaker margin is not covered. fuel permeate assumptions of $0.11c/kWh electrical energy (U.S. typical per EIA) and 5 miles per kwh for the Volt, $3.00 gas can permeate to consumers (roughly simply the fabric cost of “oil” in gasoline at $100 oil fee, earlier than taxes — actual prices are more likely to be larger for buyers if oil prices reside high), $2.25 per gallon corn E85 to patrons earlier than taxes ($1.seventy five creation permeate per gallon), and $1.50 per gallon cellulosic E85 (in keeping with $1.00 construction permeate before taxes) in 2017. A 25 % mileage discount is used with ethanol (equal to current typical EPA de-rating for E85). doesn't encompass anticipated growth on E85 mileage relative to gasoline or the carbon emissions from battery manufacturing, which can be more likely to manufacture Prius and battery numbers about 10-20 % worse on carbon emissions. not one of the fees account for subsides or taxes, which they count on will be zero or equal for every technologies by 2017. No car attribute alterations are assumed.

    The numbers are always estimates, and apples-to-apples comparisons are complicated. especially, they attain not consist of the carbon emissions for battery manufacture amortized over the assumed a hundred,000-mile life of the battery. furthermore, speculation persists that the GM Volt battery may be leased to consumers — and that the $30,000 expense tag is not inclusive of any leasing expenses. i suspect these errors are material, and manufacture the electric numbers emerge materially greater than they are. (Can someone provide a source for an inexpensive estimate?)

    The assumptions in the back of this desk are as follows: the Volt receives 5 miles/kwh. Given U.S. electrical grid emissions of about 1.35lbs per kWh (EIA estimates), that offers us a per-mile emissions flat of roughly 0.32 lbs/mile (after adjusting for an electrical roundtrip storage effectivity at 85 % for the battery, and assuming it's running on battery alone) or about one hundred forty four grams of carbon dioxide per mile. On gas on my own (assuming no battery charging from electrical energy) the selfsame car’s emissions would be 219 grams per mile.

    the expend of best cellulosic ethanol, the selfsame car would esteem seventy five p.c lessen emissions, or 55 grams per mile (assuming vans, and many others., supplying biomass, and transportation silent working on fossil gasoline). we've modeled gasoline emissions for tank-to-wheels to be 80 % of that from neatly-to-wheels emissions (roughly what the EIA uses). Any aid in refining these numbers can be preferred.

    The percentage of coal within the U.S. grid is anticipated to traipse up, now not down. wayward to most forecasts, I feel they can attain greater than that and confine coal-powered electrical energy to the factor the status its percentage will decline (we esteem investments to manufacture renewable grid electricity cheaper than subsequent-gen IGCC coal vegetation), but the decline may be gradual given yardstick power plant lifespans. regardless of what they could desire for — using on photo voltaic or wind power — the reality is likely to be distinct. For these of you who want to compute photo voltaic PV panels in your roof, its helpful permeate is between $0.25 (reasonably-priced panels in sunny Arizona?) to $0.50 (Foggy Seattle?) per kWh, based upon your permeate and the location of the panels. In a number of locations wind can be most economical, however that could be for a minute minority of car house owners.

    What concerning the can permeate of driving a mile? when they gather to the incremental clean-grid fees, renewable electricity is anticipated to cost about $0.10-0.15c/kWh (previous to taxes; $0.06-0.10 per kWh brought to utilities) dropped at the customer at any huge scale, or about $0.02-0.03 per mile from a automobile of the Volt class. A construction permeate of $1.00 per gallon of biofuel (i believe lessen costs are probably in 10-15 years) will doubtless outcome in a $1.50 client fee constituent (ahead of any taxes, which vary with the aid of state), so one would esteem to gather 50mpg (very doable; well-nigh the GM Volt fuel-simplest mileage) in a flex-gasoline automobile to gather the selfsame variable cost per mile driven.

    yes, I attain call — inside the decade — a powerful flex-fuel engine to gather the equal mileage on biofuels as it does on fuel (as an example, an ethanol-in a position engine working at a compression ratio of 16 — ethanol’s greater octane rating means that today’s engines aren't optimized for it). which will boost ethanol mileage via one other 25 p.c, which is not figured into their month-to-month cost reduction calculations. I should silent be limpid that each one numbers are necessarily approximations, probably to inside 25 percent.


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