642-145 Certification Brain Dumps Source : Implementing Cisco IOS Unified Communications piece 2 (IIUC2)
Test Code : 642-145
Test cognomen : Implementing Cisco IOS Unified Communications piece 2 (IIUC2)
Vendor cognomen : Cisco
practice exam : 80 Brain Dump Questions
Cisco weblog > SP360: carrier provider
As they head to MPLS + SDN + NFV World Congress this week, i'm reminded of conversations I even gain with carrier providers any of the time. They inform me how they exigency finished solutions to meet their enterprise needs, now not only a slice of a expertise stack. They expose me they exigency utility that supports an conclusion-to-end structure it really is tightly integrated with their OSS/BSS methods, and runs on a full compass of hardware. And, they want it to subsist fundamental to redeem into upshot and effortless to use.
it truly is exactly what they created with Cisco IOS XR. greater than 150 service suppliers - including one of the crucial largest net gamers everywhere - gain deployed their subsequent era containerized/virtualized IOS XR, which is the richest networking stack available available on the market, with business-main improvements in IP transport (phase Routing), IPv6, services (EVPN), Visibility (Streaming Telemetry), protection (MacSec), Programmability (Yang), 5G (clocking/synch) and plenty more.
Our IOS XR has three main areas of innovation:
An illustration of this innovation is IOS XR's assist of Linux containers, which they delivered back in 2015 with IOS XR 6.0. They architected their IOS XR application stack to elope in containers and provide steer for consumer and third celebration purposes in containers too, which is feasible because the utility distribution supporting IOS XR is based on Open Embedded Linux. at the identical time, they aligned their deployment and automation capabilities with trade requirements (Netconf/gRPC) as well as server workflows (iPXE, ZTP, Ansible, Chef, Puppet and greater). really, they established IOS XR operating as a piece of a Mesos Cluster at MesosCon 2015.
We additionally made certain IOS XR is purchasable on Cisco and merchant silicon throughout a large altenative of hardware structures, starting from 1 RU to multi-chassis techniques. It runs in a digital figure ingredient on established x86 compute platforms with the complete characteristic set and a excessive-efficiency facts aircraft. With assist for actual and virtual, IOS XR gives service suppliers proper altenative in their designs, whereas offering a gauge operational journey conclusion-to-conclusion. they are additionally laser focused on making their application convenient to consume and redeem in force. we're designing with ruthless ease in intellect. you could study more about full IOS XR capabilities on https://xrdocs.github.io or comply with @xrdocs on twitter.
i am so haughty of their crew for his or her constant improvements in software that launched the industry to fresh heights back in 2015 and nonetheless far outpaces the comfort in the marketplace nowadays.
if you are attending MPLS+SDN+NFV World Congress subsist certain to register for the experience online for Cisco's workshop to study greater about IOS XR and meet their consultants.Tags:
LAN property of carrier Templates
The direct of this document is to define the local enviornment community (LAN) property of carrier templates that could subsist applied by using you Unified Communications engineers. This document carries simple configuration details that should subsist followed prerogative through any UC deployment. The configurations contained inside this doc are in accordance with Ciscos high-quality of carrier SRND and Unified Communications supervisor SRND. For a complete listing of configuration particulars, reference the Cisco property of provider SRND and Cisco Unified Communications manager SRND.
The configurations in this document should subsist regarded as the final analysis for any implementation and should subsist blanketed in any implementation as a piece of the mediocre birth technique. LAN traps should subsist carried out after enforcing the QoS to ensure that proper markings are being set and maintained prerogative through the commercial enterprise.
here contraptions are lined in this FAQ* leavening 3550 Switches* leavening 2960/2970/3560/3750 Switches* leavening 4500 Switches with autochthonous IOS as much as Supervisor Engine 7E* leavening 6500 Switches with autochthonous IOS
here markings are used to designate site visitors, per the Cisco SRND. These are the markings that you will account for within the ground skilled services implementation pricing.
When IP phones are deployed together with different smooth customers, similar to CIPC, CUVA, or CUPC, then it is vital to beget inevitable the usurp marking of schmaltzy customer UC traffic. here's achieved by utilizing entry lists and repair policies.
The voice ingredient of a summon may moreover subsist labeled in one of two techniques, reckoning on the kind of cognomen in development. A voice-only (or normal) cellphone summon would gain the media categorized as CoS 5 (IP precedence 5 or PHB EF), whereas the audio channel of a video conference would gain the media classified as CoS four (IP priority four or PHB AF41). the entire Cisco IP Video Telephony items adhere to the Cisco company QoS Baseline average, which requires that the audio and video channels of a video cognomen each subsist marked as CoS four (IP precedence four or PHB AF41). The motives for this suggestion consist of, however aren't limited to, the following:* To retain lip-sync between the audio and video channels* To give sunder classes for audio-handiest calls and video calls
Cisco Unified own Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video knowledge are both voice and video ready, which presents two challenges when the usage of the ACL and coverage map for packet classification and DSCP re-marking. First, Cisco Unified personal Communicator uses the equal IP tackle and UDP port compass to supply voice and video streams. The ACL it truly is in accordance with IP address and port quantity isn't granular enough to differentiate a voice summon from a video cognomen as a route to celebrate usurp DSCP re-marking. 2d, Cisco IP Communicator makes consume of the identical IP handle and UDP port compass to supply its voice packets. similarly, the ACL is not granular satisfactory to distinguish the voice slip of an audio-simplest cognomen from the voice circulation of a video call. for this reason, the consume of the ACL and policy-map for packet classification and DSCP re-marking is not a feasible QoS solution for application-primarily based endpoints.
as a result of both Cisco Unified personal Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video capabilities label their signaling and media packets accurately as they ingress the community, Cisco recommends configuring the policy map to believe the DSCP marking of incoming traffic and rehearse traffic policing and rate limiting.
1. leavening 3550
The leavening 3550 switch mode is frequently present in the access layer of the LAN. This model helps a 1P3Q1T queuing mannequin.
These commands are entered on a worldwide smooth and are crucial in any QoS implementations. they're used to safely map COS and DSCP values as well as to associate these markings with the applicable interface queue and threshold.
Trunk Port commands
Trunk ports, which may include connections to other switches, as well as Dot1Q connections to routers, should subsist configured to gain faith the DSCP markings from the neighboring device.
Voice Servers, WAN Routers, Gateways
frequently speaking, contraptions similar to voice servers, WAN routers, and voice gateways can moreover subsist depended on, comparable to trunk ports.
IP telephones with out soft purchasers
When IP phones are deployed in an atmosphere with out other gentle valued clientele equivalent to CIPC, CUVA, or CUPC, then the configuration for these access ports can moreover subsist to readily faith the COS of the IP phones. If a consumer may gain any smooth consumers in the commercial enterprise, it is informed that you simply result the configuration template for IP telephones with gentle valued clientele as it is not feasible to know precisely which ports may additionally or may not gain smooth valued clientele energetic.
IP phones with soft purchasers
because both Cisco Unified personal Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video potential label their signaling and media packets correctly as they ingress the network, Cisco recommends configuring the policy map to gain assurance the DSCP marking of incoming site visitors and rehearse site visitors policing and price limiting. it's going to subsist cited that this doc comprises IP mobilephone manage site visitors for SCCP, secure SCCP, and SIP implementations.
The customer can elect so as to add extra courses for other purposes that tumble into the bulk, Transactional, or Interactive classes reminiscent of Oracle, FTP, and so forth via configuring further ACLs and class-maps. You could subsist creating classes for voice and video. any other traffic not blanketed in these courses could subsist policed at 5Mbps. This helps offer protection to the ambiance from DoS assaults, and should not gain an upshot on official site visitors.
given that we're going to subsist marking traffic from PCs to greater courses inside the QoS guidelines, they should ensure that they don't open the infrastructure as much as a DoS assault from these PCs via allowing them to transmit extra information than imperative in every category. here is accomplished with policers. via policing sudden packets to DSCP 8 (scavenger), we've made immoderate packets with policed markings a reduce precedence than 0.
entry lists (ACLs) are used to competently determine traffic to subsist able to exigency to subsist marked at the ingredient of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN aspect to LAN segment, as each the voice VLAN and facts VLAN might moreover fluctuate from location to vicinity inside a deployment.
type-Maps are created to vicinity the traffic recognized by route of the access lists into the acceptable QoS classes. The 3550 swap can classify based on VLAN identification, so hierarchy classes are utilized for this swap. In prerogative here illustration, VV refers back to the Voice VLAN identification.
policy-Maps are created as a route to win action on traffic within a class. In these examples, the policers assume that the voice most effective calls will consume G.711 and that video calls will no longer exceed 384k. If a voice codec with a more robust bandwidth became used, equivalent to G.722, the policer for the voice classification would deserve to subsist altered to 320k, as a substitute of 128k.
IP cellphone and workstation Ports
with a purpose to implement the classifications and policies, the coverage-map exigency to subsist applied to the ingress of any IP mobile and computer ports.
2. leavening 2960/2970/3560/3750
These leavening change fashions are generally present in the entry layer of the LAN, however in some deployments, the 3750 is used within the distribution degree. These fashions support a 1P3Q3T queuing mannequin.
These commands are entered on a world degree and are imperative in any QoS implementations. they are used to properly map COS and DSCP values as well as to affiliate these markings with the applicable interface queue and threshold.
Trunk Port instructions
Trunk ports, which could encompass connections to other switches, in addition to Dot1Q connections to routers, should subsist configured to gain faith the DSCP markings from the neighboring gadget.
Voice Servers, WAN Routers, Gateways
often speaking, devices corresponding to voice servers, WAN routers, and voice gateways can moreover subsist depended on, comparable to trunk ports.
IP telephones devoid of gentle consumers
When IP phones are deployed in an atmosphere without different soft valued clientele equivalent to CIPC, CUVA, or CUPC, then the configuration for these access ports may moreover subsist to without rigor faith the COS of the IP telephones. If a shopper will gain any gentle consumers within the enterprise, it's informed that you just celebrate the configuration template for IP phones with smooth customers as it is not possible to understand exactly which ports can moreover or may now not gain tender consumers lively.
IP phones with tender valued clientele
as a result of each Cisco Unified personal Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video capabilities label their signaling and media packets accurately as they ingress the network, Cisco recommends configuring the coverage map to believe the DSCP marking of incoming traffic and rehearse traffic policing and fee limiting. it would subsist stated that this doc comprises IP cell manage site visitors for SCCP, snug SCCP, and SIP implementations.
The customer can decide on to add further courses for other purposes that tumble into the majority, Transactional, or Interactive classes such as Oracle, FTP, and many others through configuring extra ACLs and sophistication-maps. You could subsist growing courses for voice and video. any other site visitors now not protected in these classes can subsist policed at 5Mbps. This helps give protection to the atmosphere from DoS assaults, and may now not gain an upshot on respectable site visitors.
seeing that we're going to subsist marking traffic from PCs to better courses within the QoS policies, they should beget certain that they don't open the infrastructure as much as a DoS attack from these PCs by route of allowing them to transmit more statistics than fundamental in every classification. this is performed with policers. through policing unexpected packets to DSCP eight (scavenger), they now gain made immoderate packets with policed markings a lessen precedence than 0.
entry lists (ACLs) are used to correctly identify site visitors which will deserve to subsist marked on the ingredient of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN segment to LAN phase, as each the voice VLAN and facts VLAN may differ from region to set within a deployment.
type-Maps are created to location the site visitors identified by means of the entry lists into the acceptable QoS courses. a class-map is created for every traffic category for which an ACL was created.
policy-Maps are created with the aim to win motion on site visitors within a category. In these examples, the policers count on that the voice only calls will consume G.711 and that video calls will no longer exceed 384k. If a voice codec with a much better bandwidth turned into used, corresponding to G.722, the policer for the voice category would exigency to subsist altered to 320k, instead of 128k.
IP mobile and pc Ports
with a view to implement the classifications and guidelines, the policy-map ought to subsist utilized to the ingress of any IP mobile and workstation ports.
3. leavening 4500 Sup II to Sup IV
These leavening change models may moreover subsist found in the entry, distribution, or core layers of the LAN. These models aid a 1P3Q1T queuing model.
These instructions are entered on a worldwide smooth and are essential in any QoS implementations. they are used to effectively map COS and DSCP values in addition to to affiliate these markings with the acceptable interface queue and threshold.
Trunk Port instructions
Trunk ports, which could include connections to different switches, in addition to Dot1Q connections to routers, should subsist configured to faith the DSCP markings from the neighboring device.
Voice Servers, WAN Routers, Gateways
frequently speaking, devices comparable to voice servers, WAN routers, and voice gateways will moreover subsist relied on, similar to trunk ports.
IP phones devoid of soft valued clientele
When IP telephones are deployed in an environment with out different soft customers akin to CIPC, CUVA, or CUPC, then the configuration for these access ports can moreover subsist to without rigor gain assurance the COS of the IP phones. if you could gain any soft purchasers in the business, it is recommended that you celebrate the configuration template for IP phones with tender purchasers because it isn't feasible to grasp precisely which ports may or might moreover not gain soft purchasers energetic.
IP telephones with tender purchasers
as a result of each Cisco Unified own Communicator and Cisco IP Communicator with Cisco Unified Video capabilities label their signaling and media packets appropriately as they ingress the network, Cisco recommends configuring the coverage map to gain faith the DSCP marking of incoming traffic and apply site visitors policing and fee limiting. it'll subsist mentioned that this doc comprises IP mobilephone control traffic for SCCP, snug SCCP, and SIP implementations.
you can select to add extra classes for other applications that tumble into the majority, Transactional, or Interactive classes akin to Oracle, FTP, and so on with the aid of configuring further ACLs and class-maps. You can subsist creating classes for voice and video. any different site visitors no longer protected in these courses could subsist policed at 5Mbps. This helps offer protection to the environment from DoS attacks, and should now not gain an upshot on legit site visitors.
considering that we're going to subsist marking site visitors from PCs to larger courses inside the QoS policies, they should subsist certain that they don't open the infrastructure up to a DoS assault from these PCs through allowing them to transmit greater records than censorious in each category. here is accomplished with policers. by using policing unexpected packets to DSCP eight (scavenger), they gain made immoderate packets with policed markings a reduce precedence than 0.
entry lists (ACLs) are used to adequately establish traffic with the aim to deserve to subsist marked at the ingredient of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN segment to LAN segment, as both the voice VLAN and data VLAN can moreover vary from district to location inside a deployment.
classification-Maps are created to location the traffic recognized by route of the access lists into the usurp QoS classes. a category-map is created for every site visitors classification for which an ACL become created.
coverage-Maps are created to subsist able to win action on site visitors within a class. In these examples, the policers anticipate that the voice only calls will consume G.711 and that video calls will no longer exceed 384k. If a voice codec with a far better bandwidth changed into used, such as G.722, the policer for the voice class would deserve to subsist altered to 320k, instead of 128k.
IP mobilephone and computer Ports
with a purpose to implement the classifications and policies, the policy-map exigency to subsist utilized to the ingress of any IP cell and computer ports.
four. leavening 4500 Sup VI-E
These leavening change fashions may moreover subsist present in the access, distribution, or core layers of the LAN. These fashions aid a 1P3Q1T queuing model.
These instructions are entered on a world smooth and are integral in any QoS implementations. they are used to accurately map COS and DSCP values in addition to to associate these markings with the applicable interface queue and threshold.
access lists (ACLs) are used to safely determine site visitors as a route to should subsist marked at the ingredient of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN segment to LAN segment, as each the voice VLAN and statistics VLAN may additionally differ from region to set within a deployment.
5. leavening 4500 Sup 7-E
The per-port/per-VLAN policing mannequin is basically the identical for the leavening 4500-E Supervisor 6-E, except that it doesn't require a world policed-DSCP map and accordingly the policing instructions are a bit different; additionally no trust-DSCP commentary is required on the interface(s)
information Vlan Interfaces
Voice Vlan Interfaces
6. leavening 4500: Supervisor V-10GE
6.1. Per-Port UBRL (person-based mostly expense Limiting)
UBRL adopts microflow policing skill to dynamically study site visitors flows and expense limit each and every enjoyable flood to an individual price and, as such, is a highly constructive and effective policing tool, principally at the distribution ayer in a medianet campus network.
UBRL is obtainable on Supervisor Engine V-10GE with NetFlow support. UBRL can moreover subsist applied to ingress traffic on routed interfaces and is typically utilized in environments where a per-user, granular expense limiting mechanism is required, comparable to at the distribution layer, to deliver a 2d line of policing defense within the campus. fancy other policers, UBRL will moreover subsist used to drop or observation exceeding flows.
A flood is defined by means of five-tuples (IP supply tackle, IP destination address, IP protocol container, Layer 4 protocol source, and destination ports), which might subsist the identical for every packet in the circulation. move-based mostly policers apply a single policy to discrete flows without needing to specify the virtually-endless tuple-mixtures. UBRL can moreover subsist utilized with source or destination slip masks; these masks rehearse an combination microflow policing coverage to varied flows sharing the equal supply or IP destination addresses.
in the per-port UBRL model, a category map matches on a microflow foundation and aggregates these by supply addresses. Then a policer applies an aggregate limit to any microflows sharing a typical source IP address, remarking site visitors in excess of the policing expense.
Remarking is performed by means of configuring a policed-DSCP map with the global configuration command qos map dscp policed, which specifies which DSCP values are bailiwick to remarking (if out-of-profile) and what these values should silent subsist remarked to (which in the case of scavenger classification QoS guidelines, the remarking value is CS1/DSCP 8).
UBRL is supported on Layer 3 interfaces and can subsist applied on either a per-port or per-port/per-VLAN-basis
Per-Port UBRL Configuration illustration on a leavening 4500 Supervisor V-10GE
6.2. Per-Port/Per-VLAN UBRL (person-based rate Limiting)
In distinction with the outdated illustration, if the campus distribution screen is the consume of a Layer 2/Layer three design, and as such has Layer 2 trunked interfaces (TenGigabitEthernet 1/1 and 1/2) connecting it to the entry layer switches, then UBRL may moreover subsist utilized on a per-port/per-VLAN groundwork. in this case, sunder UBRL policies can subsist utilized to each VLAN traversing the trunked interfaces by the consume of per-port/per-VLAN UBRL policies as each and every VLAN is routed throughout the swap.
To spotlight coverage flexibility, further degrees of classification are covered in this 2d UBRL illustration (which by the route can even subsist utilized to the per-port UBRL mannequin). in its set of applying a blanket UBRL policy to any endpoints, sunder UBRL polices can moreover subsist utilized to different types of endpoints or utility-and-endpoint-combinations. as an instance, VoIP from Cisco IP phones within the VVLAN will moreover subsist rate limited to 128 Kbps, while signaling site visitors from these endpoints may moreover subsist constrained to 32 kbps. in a similar fashion, TelePresence endpoints within the VVLAN (which label their media flows to CS4) can subsist restricted to 25 Mbps. any different endpoint-generated site visitors within the VVLAN will moreover subsist constrained to 32 kbps per endpoint.
identical coverage granularity may moreover subsist applied to the DVLAN policer, if favored. besides the fact that children in this example, a simplified DVLAN policer is applied to any flows to beget inevitable that any DVLAN endpoint transmitting at more than 5% capacity (an instance value) of the access district 10/100/a thousand swap ports are discipline to data plane policing/scavenger class QoS.
Static DSCP-trust is configured on the actual ports and the per-port/per-VLAN UBRL policers are applied to their respective VLANs in the trunked interface.
Per-Port/Per-VLAN UBRL Configuration illustration on a leavening 4500 Supervisor V-10GE
7. leavening 6500 autochthonous IOS
These leavening swap models can moreover subsist present in the distribution or core layers of the LAN. The queuing components is at once elegant upon the road playing cards. consult the Cisco QoS SRND or line card datasheet on Cisco website documentation to subsist certain that the usurp queuing formula is configured on the switch.
These commands are entered on a world stage and are vital in any QoS implementations. they are used to accurately map COS and DSCP values in addition to to affiliate these markings with the usurp interface queue and threshold.
Trunk Port instructions
Trunk ports, which might encompass connections to different switches, as well as Dot1Q connections to routers, should silent subsist configured to faith the DSCP markings from the neighboring device. moreover, with autochthonous IOS, the queue configurations are moreover made on the exact interfaces and are based upon the transmit queue support of the line cards.
2Q2T Tx Line cards
1P2Q1T Tx Line cards
1P2Q2T Tx Line playing cards
1P3Q1T Tx Line cards
1P3Q4T Tx Line playing cards
1P3Q8T Tx Line playing cards
1P7Q4T Tx Line cards
1P7Q8T Tx Line playing cards
Voice Servers, WAN Routers, Gateways
frequently speakme, gadgets reminiscent of voice servers, WAN routers, and voice gateways can moreover subsist trusted, similar to trunk ports.
2Q2T Tx Line cards
1P2Q1T Tx Line cards
1P2Q2T Tx Line cards
1P3Q1T Tx Line playing cards
1P3Q8T Tx Line playing cards
1P7Q8T Tx Line cards
access lists (ACLs) are used to correctly establish site visitors in order to exigency to subsist marked on the point of ingress. These ACLs will deviate from LAN aspect to LAN segment, as both the voice VLAN and facts VLAN may moreover differ from vicinity to vicinity inside a deployment.
Gigabit Ethernet IP phone and computing device Ports
in order to implement the classifications and policies, the policy-map gain to subsist utilized to the ingress of any IP addresses.
2Q2T Tx Line cards
1P2Q1T Tx Line cards
1P2Q2T Tx Line playing cards
1P3Q1T Tx Line playing cards
1P3Q4T Tx Line playing cards
1P3Q8T Tx Line cards
1P7Q4T Tx Line playing cards
1P7Q8T Tx Line cards
Per-Port Microflow Policing mannequin
Microflow policing dynamically learns traffic flows and price limits each and every animated flood to an individual cost and as such, is a totally useful and productive policing tool, particularly at the distribution layer in a medianet campus network.
Microflow policing can moreover subsist utilized to ingress traffic on routed interfaces and is usually utilized in environments where a per-consumer, granular cost limiting mechanism is required comparable to those of on the distribution layer which to supply a 2nd-line of policing defense within the campus. fancy different policers, microflow policing may moreover subsist used to drop or statement exceeding flows.
Microflow policers are enabled with the police slip policy-map classification-motion command. A slip is defined with the aid of five-tuples (IP supply address, IP destination address, IP protocol field, Layer four protocol source, and vacation spot ports), which can subsist the same for every packet in the movement. Microflow policers result a single policy to discrete traffic flows, while not having to specify the virtually-countless tuple mixtures. Microflow policing can moreover subsist utilized with source or destination circulation masks (with the mask src-most effective and mask dest-best not obligatory key terms, respectively). These masks then rehearse an combination microflow policing coverage to assorted flows sharing the same source or IP vacation spot addresses.
within the per-port microflow policing model, a circulation-primarily based policer is applied with a masks src-best option and applies an amalgam limit to any microflows sharing a gauge source IP tackle, remarking traffic in extra of the policing expense.
Remarking is performed with the aid of configuring policed-DSCP maps with the global configuration instructions mls qos map policed-dscp average-burst (which specifies the exceeding remarking action) and mls qos map policed-dscp max-burst (which specifies the violating remarking action, in the case of a dual fee policer). These instructions specify which DSCP values are bailiwick to remarking if out-of-profile and what value these may silent subsist remarked as (which in the case of data plane policing/scavenger kind QoS policies, this price is CS1/DSCP eight).
despite the fact that single price policers are used, it's suggested to configure the mls qos map dscp policed max-burst markdown map, as the maximum_burst_bytes parameter for the policer is determined to equal to the normal_burst_bytes parameter, unless explicitly exact otherwise. In different words, the PIR is set to equal the CIR, until explicitly exact otherwise, and thus the exceed-motion policed-dscp-transmit key words causes PFC QoS to label site visitors down DSCP values as defined through the policed-dscp max-burst markdown map (and not the policed-dscp typical-burst markdown map).
Per-Port Microflow Policing Configuration instance on a leavening 6500
Per-VLAN Microflow Policing mannequin
In distinction with the previous illustration, if the campus distribution screen is the usage of a Layer 2/Layer 3 design, and as such has Layer 2 trunked interfaces (TenGigabitEthernet 3/1 and 3/2) connecting it to the access layer switches, then microflow policing will moreover subsist applied on a per-VLAN basis. in this case, sunder microflow policing guidelines can subsist utilized to every VLAN.
To highlight policy flexibility, additional degrees of classification are protected in this 2d microflow policing example. by the route these additions can moreover subsist applied to the per-port microflow policing model. as a substitute of making consume of a blanket microflow policer to any endpoints, sunder microflow policers can moreover subsist applied to several types of endpoints or application-and-endpoint-combinations. as an instance, VoIP from Cisco IP phones within the VVLAN can subsist policed to 128 Kbps, whereas signaling traffic from these endpoints can subsist policed to 32 kbps. in a similar fashion, TelePresence endpoints within the VVLAN (which label their media flows to CS4) can moreover subsist policed to 25 Mbps. any different endpoint-generated traffic within the VVLAN can subsist policed to 32 kbps per endpoint.
equivalent policy granularity may moreover subsist utilized to the DVLAN policer, if preferred. youngsters in this illustration, a simplified DVLAN policer is applied to any flows to beget inevitable that any DVLAN endpoint transmitting at greater than 5% capability (an illustration cost) of the entry facet 10/a hundred/a thousand swap ports are bailiwick to statistics plane policing/scavenger classification QoS.
Per-VLAN Microflow Policing Configuration illustration on a leavening 6500
in order to subsist certain real conclusion to conclusion QoS prerogative through the atmosphere, the voice gateways ought to subsist configured to thoroughly label handle and bearer traffic sourced from their processes, together with MGCP, H.323, and SIP.
by route of default, MGCP gateways label bearer site visitors with DSCP EF and handle traffic with AF31. here is now not consistent with current requirements. prerogative here adjustments may silent subsist made to any deployed MGCP gateways.
with the aid of default, H.323 and SIP dial-friends label bearer site visitors with DSCP EF and manage traffic AF31. here's not per latest requirements. The comply with changes may silent subsist made to VOIP dial-peers on any deployed H.323 and SIP gateways.
WAN remarkable of service
if you befall to try to assure site visitors service over lengthy distance involving WAN circuits equivalent to element-to-element, MPLS, and Metro Ethernet; then there ought to subsist QoS implementation on your WAN gateway of any ends of your area. moreover, your WAN QoS implementation exigency to fitting QoS specification your carrier company makes consume of to preserve end-to-conclusion QoS service.
As illustration, for instance you gain aspect-to-aspect 1 Gbps Metro Ethernet circuit out of your carrier provider to interconnect two of your places. The service company has specification that 5 Mbps is guaranteed for class of carrier (CoS) priority 5 (EF) site visitors, 5 Mbps is assured for CoS precedence 2; while the ultimate bandwidth is freely used for CoS default traffic.
Let's anticipate you gain IP mobile that uses DSCP EF 5 or CoS 5 of UDP port compass 16384 - 32767 for voice traffic and makes consume of DSCP AF 41 (CS 3) or CoS 3 of SIP (UDP and TCP port compass 5060 - 5061) and SCCP (TCP port compass 2000 - 2002) for signalling site visitors. inside LAN, you typically let these specification as default while atmosphere any LAN swap access and trunk ports to own these traffic. as soon as the site visitors is headed to the factor-to-aspect circuit, then compass what may you must modify the traffic specification when you intend to healthy your traffic specification with the provider issuer specification.
expect you want to beget the most of the service provider CoS 5 for the voice traffic, CoS 2 for the signalling, and final bandwidth is utilize for different site visitors reminiscent of e mail, web, and file sharing. for this understanding as the site visitors is ready to leave one location over the aspect-to-factor circuit to compass your different vicinity, you deserve to map your latest CoS 5 traffic to the carrier provider CoS 5, map your existing CoS 3 site visitors to the service issuer CoS 2, and map remaining traffic to the carrier company CoS default traffic.
When the site visitors is already going over the element-to-factor circuit from one vicinity and arrive on the other area, you exigency set your traffic lower back to its customary specification to subsist able to suit your site visitors specification. hence as the site visitors arrives at the other place, you deserve to map the carrier company CoS 5 traffic to the customary CoS 5 traffic, map the service issuer CoS 2 to the customary CoS three, and map terminal traffic as default traffic.
As you might moreover celebrate that these WAN QoS mapping happens to your WAN gateway while LAN QoS mapping happens in your LAN. Following is one solution how the WAN QoS mapping and configuration emerge to be. the view here is that your WAN gateway is a router the usage of GigabitEthernet 0/0/0 port to connect with the WAN circuit.
for more info regarding these QoS instructions, try the following Cisco link.Configuring the Modular remarkable of provider
illustration community Design and Implementation
The recommendation posted here is a summarized version of the Cisco AVVID QoS Design e-book. The grownup who posted this is no longer accountable for any community complications or any harm led to through configuring their router to the following specification. If in doubt, open up a Cisco TAC case which a Cisco Engineer will regain in touch to support you implement or troubleshoot your design or theme respectively. You may additionally additionally query the Cisco discussion board neighborhood for any counsel however group settle for no liability for any thoughts made which are then applied.
The instance under is the usage of a Cisco 79xx IP cell, 2924 swap (12.0(5)XU EN, and a 2600 Router (12.2(11)T IP/FW/IDS PLUS IPSEC fifty six). beget certain the types of IOS that you just're operating steer the instructions used earlier than enforcing in a construction ambiance. It additionally assumes that you're using sunder VLANs for data and voice (VLAN one hundred for statistics, and one hundred and one for voice).
This instance assumes the following community setup:
Configuring the 2924 change:
The above port configuration allows for for both voice and statistics traffic from sunder vlans. Cisco IP telephones immediately assist 802.1q trunking and 802.1p COS tagging, so one can tag any outgoing voice traffic with an L2 COS of 5, and a L3 IP precedence of 5. The 'switchport precedence lengthen cos 0' ensures that each one facts site visitors has it subsist L2 COS tag re-categorized as 0. this may ensure a computer linked to the mobile is not moreover classifying its traffic.
moreover, if your change supports inline vigour, add the following to the above configuration: 'vigor inline auto'
observe:The 'pace auto' command is extraordinarily vital. Cisco IP telephones default to auto-negotiation for pace and duplex. If the switch port is decided to 100baseT full-duplex, the IP cell immediately sets its port to 100baseT half-duplex, causing a duplex mismatch.
Configuring the 2600 router
the first issue they should conclude is define access-lists to match their voice traffic. they will create 2 extended ACLs, one for the voice RTP traffic, and one for the voice signaling traffic.
For Skinny, H.323, MGCP
note:You may additionally moreover consume a 'allow ip 188.8.131.52 0.0.0.255 any' command on the signaling access-listing to match any hosts in a specific subnet, assuming any IP telephones are on the identical subnet and their personal vlan.
subsequent, they create class maps for each kind of traffic.
Then create a coverage map for the courses:
The policy-map on the router areas any voice site visitors into the precedence Queue, which is given 240kbps of bandwidth. any signaling site visitors is in a category-based queue with 16kbps of bandwidth. And any different site visitors is queued the consume of Weighted just Queuing.
To investigate how much bandwidth to give to voice traffic:number of simultaneous calls X 80 (for g711u)variety of simultaneous calls X eleven (for g729)
ultimately, result the coverage to the interface:
observe:if you're the usage of sub-interfaces, making consume of the coverage to the fa0/0 interface will moreover result it to any sub-interfaces (i.e. fa0/0.1, fa0/0.2 and so on.) To celebrate a QoS carrier-coverage to a particular sub-interface parley with this Cisco link.applying QoS elements to Ethernet Sub-interfaces
As Qos is commonly configured on outgoing traffic, it is going to assist if you gain manage over each side of the link. which you could additionally rehearse rate limiting to inbound traffic in case you so opt for, although it's going to most effective drudgery with TCP site visitors.
This expense-restrict command line will allow no more than 1408kbps via; in order that any excess will subsist dropped. again, this best works for TCP site visitors, on the grounds that dropped packets will cause the sender to again off and win a celebrate at once more slower.
»[Config] Configuring QOS on 2960 for VOIP»[HELP] Enabling QoS on 4500 switch»[HELP] Route Maps query»[HELP] VOIP and records site visitors with qos and vlan
A censorious vulnerability affecting lots of Cisco’s networking contraptions may subsist exploited with the aid of unauthenticated, far off attackers to win over vulnerable gadgets or set off a reload and crash.
The company says that the vulnerability isn't actively exploited within the wild, but as guidance about it and Proof-of-conception code has now been published network directors would conclude neatly to set up the launched safety updates as quickly a likely.concerning the vulnerability (CVE-2018-0171)
The flaw become found out by using Embedi researchers just about a yr in the past. it's a stack-primarily based buffer overflow vulnerability existing in the smart set up feature of Cisco IOS utility and Cisco IOS XE utility.
“sensible installation is a ‘plug-and-play’ configuration and photo-management feature that gives zero-contact deployment for brand spanking fresh (usually access layer) switches,” Cisco explains.
“The feature allows for a customer to ship a Cisco swap to any region, deploy it within the network, and energy it on with out additional configuration requirements. The smart set up role incorporates no authentication through design.”
The vulnerability will moreover subsist exploited by means of by sending a crafted smart deploy message to an affected gadget on TCP port 4786.Vulnearable contraptions
Embedi researchers confirmed that the flaw is present in leavening 4500 Supervisor Engines, Cisco leavening 3850 sequence Switches, and Cisco leavening 2960 sequence Switches, however that a slew of other gadgets are doubtlessly susceptible.
Cisco says that it impacts contraptions which are working a inclined liberate of Cisco IOS or IOS XE application and gain the sensible installation customer role enabled.
“a sane set up community consists of precisely one sensible set up director swap or router, moreover referred to as an built-in fork director (IBD), and one or extra sensible installation client switches, moreover known as built-in fork purchasers (IBCs). a client switch doesn't exigency to subsist directly related to the director; the customer change may moreover subsist up to seven hops away,” Cisco cited. “handiest sane set up client switches are suffering from the vulnerability.”
Cisco IOS XR utility or Cisco NX-OS software isn't affected.
both Cisco and Embedi gain supplied directions on how to verify no matter if a utensil is susceptible (i.e., how to investigate the software free up, whether the sane deploy customer role is enabled, and whether the aforementioned port is open).what number of inclined devices are out there?
“After the vulnerability changed into found, they determined that it could most effective subsist used for assaults inside an commercial enterprise community. as a result of in a securely configured network, sensible set up know-how members may silent not subsist obtainable through the web,” Embedi researchers stated.
“but scanning the cyber web has shown that here's now not real. any the route through a short scan of the web, they detected 250,000 susceptible instruments and 8,5 million gadgets that gain a vulnerable port open. probably, this occurs as a result of on sensible installation purchasers the port TCP(4786) is opened by route of default and community administrators conclude not subsist watchful this in some way.”
As there are no workarounds for mitigating the flaw and PoC beget the most code has been made accessible, administrators are advised to redeem in force the offered updates.
replace (APRIL 5, 2018):
And in order for you greater explanations for eliminating the Cisco sensible set up customer from any instruments where it isn't used, Cisco has shared more particulars about lively attacks that leverage a ripen protocol misuse situation in the customer and offered mitigation assistance.
642-145 Certification Brain Dumps Source : Implementing Cisco IOS Unified Communications piece 2 (IIUC2)
Test Code : 642-145
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Having laid out my views in piece I, let me rotate to the exact information related to hybrids — each from an environmental and monetary perspective.
How conclude carbon emissions per mile driven evaluate for quite a few automobiles? The Volt is expected to subsist “below $30,000” with a 1.0L engine. compare this to the Corolla, with a 1.8Lengine (top hp of 126; 31 mpg) and a cost of $14,400. It’s worth noting that here is in the positive, no-gas-use situation for the Volt, computed below together with carbon emissions for the Volt operating on cellulosic ethanol and gasoline, and emissions for comparable-sized ICE vehicles. questions about the Volt’s genuine utilization patterns remain: how many people will recharge typical? how many of complete miles will subsist on the grid, and what percentage on gas?2010 2017 2017 (with 50% boost in ICE mpg efficiency) vehicleCO2 Emissions — grams/ mile month-to-month can suffuse (vehicle+gasoline) CO2 Emissions — grams/ mile monthly cost (vehicle+gasoline) CO2 Emissions — grams/ mile month-to-month cost (car+fuel) Toyota Prius 238 $490 238 $490 159 $468 GM Volt On electrical energyone hundred forty four $623 144 $623 144 $623 GM Volt Cellul. E85 – – fifty five $641 37 $628 GM Volt gas best 219 $661 219 $661 146 $641 GM Volt gas+Elec (1:1) 182 $642 181 $642 one hundred forty five $632 Toyota Corolla (ICE Engine) 353 $385 353 $385 235 $353 Toyota Corolla (Hypothetical FFV version) 282 (Corn E85) $387 88 (Cellul. E85) $355 fifty eight (Cellul. E85) $334
note: A hypothetical “plug-in Prius” with a Volt-sized 16kWh battery would probably cost greater than the Volt. hence the above evaluation of a plug-in Volt and a hybrid Prius is unfair to the GM Volt. The month-to-month can suffuse includes the monthly amortized suffuse of purchase (7.5 percent personal loan — fully financed over 5 years) + can suffuse of gasoline (1,000 miles/month). Battery can suffuse of $7,600 (at $400kWh + $1,200 handle) in 2010 and $four,000 ($200kWh + $800 control) in 2017 is covered in the Volt purchase fee of $30,000 — these battery can suffuse estimates are forty-60 percent lessen than existing estimates of $seven-hundred-1000kWh and automaker margin isn't protected. fuel suffuse assumptions of $0.11c/kWh electrical energy (U.S. commonplace per EIA) and 5 miles per kwh for the Volt, $3.00 gas suffuse to patrons (roughly simply the material can suffuse of “oil” in fuel at $one hundred oil fee, earlier than taxes — precise charges are more likely to subsist bigger for patrons if oil expenses reside excessive), $2.25 per gallon corn E85 to consumers before taxes ($1.75 creation cost per gallon), and $1.50 per gallon cellulosic E85 (in accordance with $1.00 creation cost earlier than taxes) in 2017. A 25 p.c mileage discount is used with ethanol (equal to current mediocre EPA de-ranking for E85). does not encompass expected improvement on E85 mileage relative to fuel or the carbon emissions from battery manufacturing, which are prostrate to beget Prius and battery numbers about 10-20 percent worse on carbon emissions. not one of the costs account for subsides or taxes, which they count on might subsist zero or equal for any applied sciences by using 2017. No vehicle attribute alterations are assumed.
The numbers are necessarily estimates, and apples-to-apples comparisons are problematic. especially, they conclude not consist of the carbon emissions for battery manufacture amortized over the assumed a hundred,000-mile lifetime of the battery. moreover, speculation persists that the GM Volt battery may subsist leased to buyers — and that the $30,000 fee tag isn't inclusive of any leasing expenses. i believe these blunders are fabric, and beget the electric numbers look to subsist materially enhanced than they're. (Can somebody provide a source for an inexpensive estimate?)
The assumptions behind this table are as follows: the Volt gets 5 miles/kwh. Given U.S. electrical grid emissions of approximately 1.35lbs per kWh (EIA estimates), that offers us a per-mile emissions degree of roughly 0.32 lbs/mile (after adjusting for an electrical roundtrip storage effectivity at 85 percent for the battery, and assuming it is operating on battery on my own) or about 144 grams of carbon dioxide per mile. On gasoline on my own (assuming no battery charging from electrical energy) the same car’s emissions could subsist 219 grams per mile.
using only cellulosic ethanol, the equal vehicle would gain seventy five p.c lessen emissions, or fifty five grams per mile (assuming vans, and so forth., presenting biomass, and transportation silent running on fossil fuel). we've modeled gas emissions for tank-to-wheels to subsist eighty % of that from well-to-wheels emissions (roughly what the EIA uses). Any assist in refining these numbers could subsist liked.
The percent of coal within the U.S. grid is anticipated to travel up, no longer down. contrary to most forecasts, I contemplate they can conclude enhanced than that and restrict coal-powered electrical energy to the point where its percent will decline (we gain investments to beget renewable grid electrical energy more cost-effective than next-gen IGCC coal flora), however the decline will subsist gradual given customary vigour plant lifespans. despite what they may hope for — driving on photo voltaic or wind power — the reality is probably going to subsist different. For those of you who want to compute solar PV panels in your roof, its advantageous cost is between $0.25 (low-cost panels in sunny Arizona?) to $0.50 (Foggy Seattle?) per kWh, depending upon your cost and the location of the panels. In a few places wind might possibly subsist competitively priced, however that would subsist for a minute minority of motor vehicle house owners.
What about the suffuse of driving a mile? once they regain to the incremental clear-grid charges, renewable electrical energy is expected to suffuse about $0.10-0.15c/kWh (previous to taxes; $0.06-0.10 per kWh delivered to utilities) brought to the customer at any huge scale, or about $0.02-0.03 per mile from a automobile of the Volt category. A construction cost of $1.00 per gallon of biofuel (i contemplate reduce expenses are possible in 10-15 years) will probably upshot in a $1.50 client price point (just before any taxes, which compass by using state), so one would ought to regain 50mpg (very workable; virtually the GM Volt gasoline-best mileage) in a flex-fuel vehicle to regain the same variable cost per mile driven.
sure, I conclude call — within the decade — a pretty superior flex-gasoline engine to regain the identical mileage on biofuels as it does on gasoline (as an example, an ethanol-competent engine operating at a compression ratio of sixteen — ethanol’s larger octane rating skill that these days’s engines are not optimized for it). that will raise ethanol mileage through one more 25 percent, which is not figured into their month-to-month cost reduction calculations. I should silent subsist transparent that every one numbers are necessarily approximations, probably to inside 25 percent.
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Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [91 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
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BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Certification-Board [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [305 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [46 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [72 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [126 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [27 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [735 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1516 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [61 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [25 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [354 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [256 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [133 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [28 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [54 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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