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350-023 CCIE(R) Written: WAN Switching

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350-023 exam Dumps Source : CCIE(R) Written: WAN Switching

Test Code : 350-023
Test denomination : CCIE(R) Written: WAN Switching
Vendor denomination : Cisco
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Cisco Cisco CCIE(R) Written: WAN

30.2 Between Router and Layer-three switch | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

30.2 Between Router and Layer-3 swap

through aryoba remaining modified: 2011-12-28 08:23:19

confidently this will uphold settle the lengthy operating confusion about Layer-3 switches in this discussion board...

Some content fragment of this FAQ is taken out of the CiscoPress reserve Cisco LAN Switching, pp.451-453; authored by Kennedy Clark CCIE #2175 CCSI, and Kevin Hamilton CCSI Copyright� 1999 Cisco Press

In generic, a Layer-3 switch (routing switch) is primarily a switch (a Layer-2 device) that has been improved or taught some routing (Layer 3) capabilities. A router is a Layer-three gadget that with no inconvenience enact routing handiest. in the case of a switching router, it is basically a router that might besides consume switching technology (high-speed ASICs) for pace and performance (as well as additionally aiding Layer-2 bridging services).

As illustration, here are some examples

Layer-2 switchesCisco: leavening 2950, 2960 collection

Layer-three switches or routing switchesCisco: leavening 3550, 3560, 3750, 4500, 6500 seriesJuniper: EX series

Routers (with some bridging and/or safety features) or switching routersCisco: 1800, 1900, 2600, 2800, 2900, 3700, 3800, 3900, 7200, 7600, ASR one thousand seriesJuniper: MX sequence, J series, M sequence

several elements maintain created significant confusion surrounding the sphere of Layer-3 switch and Layer-3 switching. a few of this bewilderment arises from the fresh merging of a yoke of technologies. in the past, switches and routers had been sever and different gadgets. The term change turned into reserved for hardware-based systems that frequently functioned at Layer-2. for instance, ATM switches function hardware-based forwarding of fastened-length cells whereas Ethernet switches consume MAC addresses to do forwarding choices. Conversely, the time period router has been used to consult with a instrument that runs routing protocols to find the Layer-3 topology and makes forwarding selections in line with hierarchical Layer-3 addresses. as a result of the complexity of these tasks, routers maintain traditionally been utility-based gadgets. Routers maintain additionally carried out a wide selection of "excessive touch" and cost introduced elements equivalent to tunneling, statistics-hyperlink switching (DLSw), protocol translation, access lists, and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) relay.

In early Cisco switches (i.e. leavening 3500 switches), there are handiest primary Layer-2 capabilities similar to bridging and switching. With more moderen fashions (i.e. leavening 3550 or 3560 switches), there are additionally some routing capabilities corresponding to terminating distinct Layer-three interfaces and operating dynamic routing protocol. In router world, early Cisco routers (i.e. 1600 or 2500 model), there are most efficient basic Layer-three capabilities reminiscent of operating dynamic routing protocol, terminating Serial ports, and working non-IP protocols comparable to IPX and SNA. With more recent fashions (i.e. 1700, 1800, 2600 or 2800 models), there are additionally some Layer-2 capabilities comparable to bridging and switching. so as to add in the combine, there are some WIC (WAN Interface playing cards) and NM (community Modules) with Ethernet ports helping bridging and switching in these newer router fashions even further equivalent to WIC-4ESW Ethernet Switching card for 1700 collection, HWIC-4ESW excessive-Density Ethernet Switching card for 1800 and 2800 collection, and NM-16ESW Ethernet Switching module for 2600 and 2800 collection.

As a wide class, routing switches consume hardware to create shortcut paths during the headquarters of the network, by course of bypassing the typical utility-based router. besides the fact that children, in contrast to regular routers that utilize normal-intention CPUs for both control-aircraft and facts-airplane features, Layer-3 switches consume high-velocity software specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in the statistics plane. by removing CPUs from the facts-plane forwarding direction, wire-speed performance can subsist got. This results in a an dreadful lot quicker version of the tolerable router. In Cisco world, this routing change ASIC expertise implementation as example applies to leavening 6500 switch series. These shape of switches are usually blade or module based swap which you must specify which "switch mind" (called Supervisor Engine in Cisco world) and which port modules you just like the switch to have.

within the case of a switching router as basically a router that uses switching know-how (excessive-speed ASICs) for accelerate and performance (as well as besides aiding Layer-2 bridging services), there are Cisco 7600 sequence and Juniper MX sequence routers as examples. These kindly of routers are customarily blade or module-based mostly router which you should specify which "router mind" (often known as Supervisor Engine in Cisco world) and which port modules you like the router to have.

As a note, the Cisco 7600 string router Supervisor Engine modules are compatible with the Cisco leavening 6500 collection change as a result of similar architecture between the router and the swap. In other phrases, you may consume the very Supervisor Engine model on both Cisco 7600 collection router or leavening 6500 sequence switch. In different words, routing swap and switching router concept not applies with similar architecture implementation.

Some community topologies as illustrations

1. solitary Router2. solitary Router with varied LAN subnets3. solitary Router with solitary connection to a swap and with distinctive LAN subnets (often known as "Router on A Stick" design)four. solitary Router with Layer-3 switch and with distinct LAN subnets5. distinctive Routers with distinct unmanaged (dumb) switches and with diverse LAN subnetsOf the switching gadgets and terminology variety released by using carriers, Layer-4 and Layer-7 switching maintain bought considerable consideration. In commonplace, these processes check with the skill of a change to act on Layer 4 (transport layer) assistance contained in packets. for instance, Transmission control Protocol (TCP) and user Datagram Protocol (UDP) port numbers may besides subsist used to do decisions affecting concerns akin to protection and excellent of provider (QoS). besides the fact that children, instead of being considered as a 3rd category of campus switching gadgets, these should subsist considered as a logical extension and enhancement to the two types of switches already mentioned. truly, each routing switches and switching routers can accomplish these upper-layer capabilities.

For further knowing in variations between the topologies with benefits of 1 over the other and more, check out the following FAQ»Cisco forum FAQ »should soundless i exploit Layer-three change or router?

by course of rolande edited via aryoba final modified: 2017-02-24 17:14:forty five

Introduction

In ordinary, you are looking to consume a router when lots of the time the gadget does routing. Likewise, you wish to consume a swap when when lots of the time the gadget does switching. This commentary becomes extra manifest when dealing with larger community like an ISP or gigantic enterprise.

example in ISP is that they consume routers (as a minimum 7600 series) to maintain plenary view of BGP (the edge router). As for his or her "inner community", they consume layer-three switches (always leavening 6500 collection). In smaller ambiance, organizations consume something like 800, 1800, or 2800 collection router as the cyber web router and/or WAN router to their private WAN point-to-factor, carcass Relay, or MPLS community whereas they consume leavening 3560 collection Layer-2/three switches for endemic routing between diverse departments or between servers and hosts, and for some Spanning-Tree with Layer-2 entry switches (if any).

The concept of creating Layer-3 switch is in fact to correctly enact inter-VLAN routing or to enact interior routing between assorted broadcast domains (numerous LAN the area each LAN has its personal subnet) whereas conserving Layer-2 aspects reminiscent of spanning tree and trunking. although to Take care of "border" or "side" of the network where there are much less spanning tree or trunking (much less Layer-2) or where there is a necessity for Layer-2 community termination (area community), a router is used due to the fact that a router is actually designed to tackle traffic throughout the edge or the aspect community.

for more info, which you can check out here FAQ:»Cisco discussion board FAQ »what is the dissimilarity between a Layer-three switch and a router?

Following is illustration of the consume of Layer-three swap to enact inter-VLAN routing the area the LAN 1 is person network, LAN 2 is server community, and LAN three is guest network.sample Configuration of Layer-three change design implementation

Router

change

keep in mind that Layer-3 switches' expenditures in benchmark aren't low cost from SOHO users or diminutive organizations' standpoint because Layer-three switches are designed for companies that need actual hardware separation between router and change when routing is in need. hence should there subsist low priced Layer-3 switches attainable, SOHO clients or diminutive corporations are more than welcome to consume them.

When diminutive corporations need to enact inter-VLAN routing (i.e. facts interchange between multiple departments) or inner routing between LAN subnets (distinct broadcast domains), there are some "low priced" and could soundless subsist legit options beside the consume of layer-3 switches.

One solution is to do consume of a "Router On A Stick" design. Such design incorporates a router and a layer-2 swap which are able to doing trunking. Following is illustration.sample Configuration of "Router On A Stick" design implementation

Router

change

one more retort it's doubtless cheaper is to setup varied unmanaged (dumb) switches with additionally dissimilar routers. whereas "Router On A Stick" design potential solitary router terminates distinctive LAN subnets, this 2d retort means each router terminates its personal LAN subnet. Following is illustration.sample Configuration of distinctive router design implementation

1. Static Routing

When there are simplest few LAN (broadcast area), then static routing community design should subsist ample.

internet Router

Router 1

Router 2

Router three

When there are more LAN (broadcast domain) in area or when there are distinctive connections to achieve the equal vacation spot (equivalent to having distinct ISP to hook up with the internet), then network design according to dynamic routing should subsist would becould very well subsist extra scalable than static route method. Following is illustration.pattern Configuration of varied router and Layer-three change design implementation

2. Dynamic Routing

during this pattern configuration, RIP as dynamic routing protocol is used to deliver dynamic inter-connectivity between two structures. You may additionally solemnize that RIP as the dynamic routing protocol in vicinity decides that machines within building #1 consume ISP 1 to exit to the information superhighway as default, and will simplest consume ISP #2 through factor-to-aspect link between the two switches when ISP #1 becomes unavailable. in a similar fashion, machines within constructing #2 consume ISP 2 to exit to the information superhighway as default, and should most efficient consume ISP #1 when ISP #2 becomes unavailable.

Router 1

swap 1

Router 2

change 2

Whichever solution to choose, do certain to entire the time consume managed change instead of unmanaged switch considering in normal, managed switch is extra legitimate and has greater performance to tune.

Connectivity to enterprise accomplice's network

Now let's assessment privilege here community topology which is common datacenter layout or Ethernet-based mostly community topology.you maintain a network consisting of three switches (B1, B2, B3) and there is a company companion's network consisting of additionally three switches (A1, A2, A3). every community may additionally or may additionally no longer flee Spanning Tree to retain away from Layer-2 community loop. The purpose is to interconnect your community and the company companion's community in some course with less gadget in area, less complicated, official, and most importantly you soundless maintain your network control and administration.

One may additionally imply that you effortlessly flee cables between switches A3 and B3 running layer-2 connectivity. with the aid of having Layer-2 connectivity, there is a hazard of Layer-2 community loop that could convey down network immediately.

From diverse standpoint, you may additionally must quit your Layer-2 community manipulate over to your traffic accomplice considering Layer-2 connectivity requires plenary manipulate by using solitary community administration and extra probably, your enterprise colleague is the one network administration instead of yourself. when you've got inner Layer-2 community within switches B1, B2, or B3; then you definitely lose control of those interior community administrations as smartly which is customarily unwanted. In different words, permitting your company associate to subsist the one community administration requires such switches B1, B2, and B3 to subsist committed switches for exterior connectivity to company associate and no interior Layer-2 community is allowed.

may soundless there subsist a need to retain internal Layer-2 network within switches B1, B2, and B3 while having external connection to your enterprise community, Layer-3 connectivity should soundless subsist your optimal guess. notwithstanding there's a component called Layer-3 network loop, such loop does not carry down community severely as Layer-2 network loop. further, you soundless retain your network integrity whereas having exterior connection to your traffic community with Layer-3 connectivity between your network and company companion's.

At this point, let's correspond with Layer-3 connectivity between your network and company partner's. For the sake of illustration, anticipate the following.

Your community: 10.10.10.0/24Your enterprise associate's community: a hundred.32.10.0/24Point-to-point WAN between your community and company accomplice's: 1.1.1.0/30

The interior IP subnet you consume within your network is 10.10.10.0/24. For this connectivity, your company network makes consume of one hundred.32.10.0/24 in your community to attain.

on account that there may subsist Layer-three connectivity, there need to subsist a device inside your community it's able to enact routing. One solution is to withhold a router between change A3 and swap B3 like followingNote that the router is to your network fragment when you consider that the router terminates your Layer-2 community to connect to your company partner's community.

The configurations are the following.

change B1

swap B2

change B3

Router

When your switch B3 is a Layer-2/3 swap, then you don't should withhold a router between your network and your traffic associate's considering that that you can utilize the swap B3 routing functionality to attain the company companion's one hundred.32.10.0/24 community. No further router capability much less gadget to deal with, retain actual space, much less vigor consumption, and simplify community topology. The network topology and configuration are as follow.change B1

swap B2

change B3

additional pattern Design and Configuration»Cisco discussion board FAQ »numerous network Design the usage of Routers, Layer-three Switches, and greater

Discussions

»[Config] Cisco 2960 InterVlan Routing»[CCNA] Cisco three tier design option»advice for cisco 3560 crucial»aid...Conguration now not working...Cisco 1961»[Config] What would the change and router configuration subsist ???

comments obtained on this FAQ entry:

  • incredible stuff, very constructive.

    2015-09-20 00:21:04

  • It helped me immensely, i am at present a pupil at UMUC so I cited this post. Thanks

    2015-01-23 08:28:fifty six

  • best work, very neatly written article changed into now not anticipating it to subsist this first rate thanks

    2013-09-12 13:13:37

  • splendid doc thanks, this has benefit me out so a gross lot

    2013-08-07 14:fifty seven:19

  • very an expert document .awesome..

    2013-06-13 06:10:08

  • extraordinary document, advantageous and extremely smartly explained and straight to the element. suitable marks to author!

    2013-01-21 05:fifty four:24

  • thank you very a gross lot (dynamic routing)

    2011-11-09 04:03:56

  • superb and extremely usefull training. due to the writer.

    2011-10-30 03:01:31

  • here is a brilliant article, very helpful and descriptive.

    2011-07-27 sixteen:fifty four:forty

  • cloth in this DOCUMANT changed into enough. I got MY ANS. due to THE assist crew OF SUCH doc.

    2010-05-20 08:forty nine:04

  • by aryoba remaining modified: 2015-eleven-17 16:08:36

    As of this FAQ posted, the latest Cisco leavening layer-three switches are 3560X, 3750X, 4500X collection, 4900 series, and 6500 series. moreover there are additionally Nexus 500, 6000, and 7000 collection. here are illustrations of layer-3 swap with examples of leavening 3550 and 3560 feature and capabilities. word that leavening 3550 is regarded EOL and the existing replacement is the 3560X.

    »RE: can a l3 change with plenary dynamic protocol set»Layer 3 Switches? concepts

    by course of aryoba final modified: 2013-02-12 eleven:22:forty eight

    Prerequisite analyzing»Cisco discussion board FAQ »may soundless i consume Layer-three swap or router?

    The above FAQ link shows some fundamental network setup the consume of routers and switches. Following is more network design samples that are besides typical in lots of companies.

    pattern 1:historical past

    * This sample configuration assumes the Router to enact NAT/PAT, firewall to enact statefull firewall, and Layer-3 switch to behave as both change and router to route interior traffic. To study more about NAT/PAT, check out the following FAQ for detail »Cisco discussion board FAQ »NAT, PAT, Port ahead, information superhighway and Server entry: Introduction and Practices

    sample 1 Configuration

    Router

    images Firewall

    swap

    pattern 2:heritage

    switch* The Layer-3 switches act as Spanning-Tree Root Bridges of entire switches and as HSRP carrier providers. For prefatory information on Root Bridge, try the following hyperlink: understanding and Configuring Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) on leavening Switches. For prefatory info on HSRP, Take a search for at here link: scorching Standby Router Protocol features and functionality* quick Spanning Tree protocol is used to supply sooner convergence yet trustworthy network. for more info on speedy Spanning Tree, try privilege here hyperlink: understanding speedy Spanning Tree Protocol (802.1w)* For some VLAN, the Layer-three change 1 is the root Bridge primary whereas the Layer-three swap 2 is the backup. For different VLAN, the Layer-three switch 2 is the root Bridge basic whereas the Layer-three switch 1 is the backup.* in a similar way; for some VLAN, the Layer-3 swap 1 is the HSRP fundamental while the Layer-3 switch 2 is the backup. For different VLAN, the Layer-three swap 2 is the HSRP basic whereas the Layer-3 switch 1 is the backup.* For VLAN connection reliability, the identical Layer-3 change should soundless subsist for both Root Bridge and HSRP basic* during this sample configuration; VLAN 5, 7, one hundred Root Bridge and HSRP primaries are at Layer-3 swap 1 while VLAN 1, 20, 200 Root Bridge and HSRP primaries are at Layer-3 change 2* To retain away from useless traffic move, only some VLAN is allowed to rush via on some trunks between switches* there's IP routing in area between Layer-3 switches and the firewalls

    Firewall* The firewall may well subsist either snap shots Firewall or ASA, working OS 7.x or later* Firewall setup is LAN-based active/Standby failover, which in a sense is similar to HSRP/VRRP mechanism where the firewall simple interface IP manipulate is the "virtual" gateway for the interface subnet to achieve different network. for more information on pics/ASA lively/Standby failover, Take a search for at privilege here hyperlink: How Failover Works on the Cisco secure pix Firewall* The firewall acts as each cyber web firewall and IPSec VPN Concentrator. for more info on this, try the forum's FAQ »Cisco forum FAQ »Configure pix/ASA as each information superhighway Firewall and VPN Concentrator

    (The cyber web or outside) Router/switch* there is a primary internet firewall at the router to filter absolute questionable inbound traffic from the cyber web to the network. for more information on this, check out the forum's FAQ »Cisco forum FAQ »primary internet Firewall for Routers without IOS picture Firewall characteristic* There is not any need for the router to enact stateful firewall on the grounds that there's already the firewall appliance (portraits/ASA) to enact the stateful firewall performance

    AAA Command Set* entire Cisco contraptions on this sample configuration makes consume of usurp AAA command set for security reason. for more information on this, check out the discussion board's FAQ »Cisco forum FAQ »comfortable and video array community entry with AAA (TACACS/RADIUS) and Privilege degree

    sample 2 Configuration

    Router

    swap (Layer-3 capable)

    Firewall 1 (lively)

    Firewall 2 (Standby)

    Layer three change 1

    Layer three swap 2

    sample 3:historical past

    * The Bluecoat ProxySG appliances enact WCCP with routers and switch that uphold WCCP edition 2 "redirect out" command. greater component on WCCP may besides subsist establish privilege here: »Cisco discussion board FAQ »WCCP with Router/MSFC and Blue Coat ProxySG* web page that has two information superhighway connections (the HQ) does cyber web site visitors load partake which some subnets Take ISP 1 as primary and different subnets Take ISP 2 as simple* The ProxySG appliances intercept outbound traffic from interior machines out to the web and provoke outbound connection the consume of the home rig IP address on behalf of inside machines as a fragment of the proxy mechanism* notice that the proxy mechanism could screw up the BGP load partake mechanism. for this understanding any BGP load partake mechanism maintain to ensue earlier than the traffic is intercepted or proxied. this is the understanding the HQ has Routers 1 and 2 to enact the WCCP for the interception, redirection, and proxy mechanism and let the Layer-3 Switches 1 and a yoke of enact the BGP load partake mechanism.* equivalent Routers 1 and a pair of don't seem to subsist mandatory in department web page on account that the web page only has solitary cyber web connection and no web load share.* entire Outbound BGP load partake mechanism at HQ site can besides subsist seen as "too complicated" from arm web page viewpoint, therefore the motive of HQ web page has BGP Confederation in area. for more info on BGP Confederation, try here hyperlink: BGP Case reports: BGP Confederation

    pattern 3 Configuration

    cyber web Router 1:

    web Router 2:

    Firewall 1

    Firewall 2

    Router 1

    Router 2

    Blue Coat ProxySG1 configuration

    1. Interface2. WCCP3. Static Routes for domestic Router IP tackle ReachabilityLayer-3 swap 1

    Layer-three change 2

    WAN 1 Router

    WAN 2 Router

    Layer-3 switch

    Blue Coat ProxySG2 configuration

    1. Interface2. WCCP3. Static Routes for home Router IP address ReachabilityFirewall

    internet Router:

    Discussions

    »DHCP question»Design conception!

    via aryoba remaining modified: 2015-08-17 09:20:21

    Introduction

    In generic, using HSRP in the context of vPC does not require any particular configuration. With vPC (referred as multi-chassis hyperlink-agg), simplest the energetic HSRP interface answers ARP requests, however each HSRP interfaces (energetic and standby) can forward traffic. If an ARP request coming from a server arrives on the secondary HSRP device, it is forwarded to the energetic HSRP machine in the course of the peer hyperlink.

    notice that on Nexus vPC configuration, ARP is dealt with by using the manipulate aircraft energetic whereas records packets are dealt with by course of both VPC peer.

    The tremendous dissimilarity between the HSRP implementation of a non-vPC configuration (natural HSRP configuration) in comparison with a vPC configuration is that the HSRP MAC addresses of a vPC configuration are programmed with the G (gateway) flag on both techniques, compared with a non-vPC configuration where only the energetic HSRP interface can program the MAC manipulate with the G flag.

    Given this reality, routable site visitors will besides subsist forwarded by means of each the vPC fundamental machine (the area HSRP is basic) and the vPC secondary device (where HSRP is secondary), and not using a need to ship this site visitors to the HSRP primary equipment. devoid of this flag, traffic despatched to the MAC manipulate would not subsist routed.

    twin-lively HSRP on Nexus is the area both contraptions will forward traffic destined to the HSRP vMAC. To truly do site visitors for one vMAC attain each devices, it must Come in by the consume of a vPC. The master although nonetheless does the entire of the ARP replies.

    HSRP is only active/energetic if you are using vPC on Nexus. If vPC is being used each vPC peers will route site visitors with a destination MAC of the HSRP digital MAC (in addition to their endemic MAC's).

    additional, there is a "peer gateway" function with vPC, that permits both vPC peers to route traffic going to the HSRP vMAC, its on local MAC, or the local MAC of the vPC peer. L3 site visitors that some of the Nexus packing containers forwards on to the subnet has the router's endemic MAC for the SVI because the source. Some poorly behaved contraptions simply reply straight to that local MAC in preference to doing an ARP to find the MAC of the default gateway. The peer gateway function is needed to permit these broken contraptions to work when vPC is being used.

    if you are now not using vPC, HSRP on Nexus works just like it does on anything else.

    extra info

    HSRP, vPC and the vPC peer-gateway CommandNexus 7000 string Switches the usage of HSRP Configuration ExamplevPC and HSRPChapter three:PortChannel: fundamental concepts (pdf file)

    discussion

    »[HELP] HSRP query»[HELP] Transit VRF question

    by using aryoba remaining modified: 2015-02-17 13:59:fifty eight


    10 sizzling hybrid-cloud startups to watch | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    as the cloud matures, many companies are discovering that no longer each application belongs in public clouds. as a result of regulatory concerns, safety risks, data ownership concerns, and fears of cloud lock-in, many functions are stubbornly rooted in on-premises architectures.

    The startups in this roundup retain in mind that, and instead of trying to candy talk agencies into forklift enhancements, these startups are willing to work beneath hybrid-cloud constraints.

    The startups beneath federate records, making it available from any cloud to any utility; supply utility virtualisation application, which enables companies to circulation workloads to and from a considerable number of clouds at will; deliver cloud file techniques that optimize and mobilize facts, and a worthy deal extra.

    One factor to observe: They did encompass a yoke of hybrid cloud storage startups, and even a data analytics one, as a result of they entire operate at infrastructure levels or they propel infrastructure elements as much as the utility layer. they are cloud-enabling tools, in different words, in area of add-ons, enhancements or cloud-delivered ones.

    the 10 startups beneath are redefining what the hybrid cloud is, enabling agencies to privilege away and cost-readily undertake recent information-intensive technologies such as IoT, AI, massive records, desktop getting to know and greater.

    What they do: supply utility virtualisation and hybrid-cloud management software

    12 months centered: 2014

    Funding: $6 million in seed and string A funding from KPCB and Costanoa Ventures

    Headquarters: San Jose, Calif.

    CEO: Rahul Ravulur, who up to now led the product administration group for availability items at VMware

    issue they transparent up: relocating complicated company-important purposes to the cloud is a difficult, labor-intensive method. AppOrbit argues that for most businesses a plenary transition to the cloud is too expensive and time-consuming to justify the advantages. Migration, safety, networking and records ownership issues, to identify handiest just a few complications, undermine the perceived merits of the shift.

    How they remedy it: AppOrbit eases the transition to the cloud by course of pushing virtualisation up the OSI stack from the infrastructure layer to the application layer. “simply as VMware freed the OS from the underlying naked metal, AppOrbit frees functions from the underlying OS and bare- metal infrastructure,” referred to AppOrbit’s VP of advertising and marketing & method, David Morris.

    AppOrbit gives three products to benefit organizations virtualise and containerize business-vital apps to circulate them to the cloud:

  • AppPorter is a legacy software modernization platform that analyzes and transforms legacy functions into containerized applications that may besides subsist transitioned into the cloud.

  • AppVizor is an software management and building platform that facilitates the continuous construction of modernized and cloud-native functions. AppVizor creates a layered container constitution to accelerate the building and deployment of latest features and performance.

  • AppSwitch virtualises network and security configuration, manage and administration at the software layer in preference to at the tolerable infrastructure layer. This approach frees functions from the typical infrastructure/cloud lock-in efforts by existing providers.

  • opponents consist of: Docker, VMware, RedHat and Cisco valued clientele encompass: Airtel, Ericsson, AutoDesk, Micron and Vodafone

    Why they’re a irritated startup to observe: AppOrbit has a powerful senior leadership crew with numerous exit journey. CEO Rahul Ravulur participated in the due diligence for a number of VMware acquisitions, and David Morris, vp of marketing and method, helped lead exits including Kazeon’s acquisition by EMC, Cetas’ acquisition with the aid of VMware, and EMC/VMware’s divestiture of Pivotal.

    even if AppOrbit has handiest raised $6M thus far, they maintain already got massive-identify shoppers like Ericsson and Vodafone. The enterprise pushes virtualisation up the stack to the app layer, liberating firms from the inevitable change-offs that Come with supplier-lock.

    What they do: supply an information-lake-intelligence platform for hybrid clouds

    12 months founded: 2013

    Funding: $forty five million from Wells Fargo, traffic Ventures, Storm Ventures, UMC, Comcast and XSeed Capital

    Headquarters: San Mateo, Calif.

    CEO: Chris Lynch. prior to AtScale, Lynch co-founded and served as a commonplace companion at accomplice, a undertaking-capital hard that invests in early stage tech corporations. earlier than that, he held leadership roles at tech startups including Vertica, Acopia Networks and Arrowpoint Communications.

    problem they resolve: Hybrid clouds maintain an information difficulty. As organizations embrace massive statistics, AI and automation, they soundless flee into roadblocks when it involves liberating records from software silos. despite the fact that they are able to free data, the next boundaries they countenance are often safety and privateness.

    How they solve it: AtScale’s OLAP (on-line analytical processing) utility is constructed on Hadoop and is designed to instantly federate disparate facts silos privilege into a unified records lake, assisting businesses consume cloud architectures to modernize functions and accelerate AI, large facts, computer gaining erudition of and different information-intensive initiatives.

    AtScale is a self-provisioned environment for customers who are either migrating to the cloud or working traffic intelligence (BI) throughout hybrid-cloud environments.

    AtScale is deployed as a layer on top of utility databases, making a “regularly occurring semantic layer” that allows for conclusion clients to query the newly federated information from BI tools (Tableau, Microsoft Excel, PowerBI), as well as from custom APIs. facts is shielded by course of a yoke of security protections, together with encryption, protecting and role-primarily based access guidelines.

    competitors include: Dremio, Databricks, Arcadia information and Xplenty clients include: TRAC Intermodal, JP Morgan Chase, Wells Fargo, home Depot, Visa, Toyota and GlaxoSmithKline

    Why they’re a sizzling startup to watch: AtScale could well extra in a huge statistics roundup, however its focal point on creating a middle habitual Semantic Layer is compelling.

    AtScale landed a in a position recent CEO Chris Lynch at the finish of June. before becoming a member of AtScale, he led Vertica to its acquisition via HP. After he left HP, he co-headquartered the venture enterprise confederate, where he invested in DataRobot (where he serves as Chairman), Sqrrl, Hadapt (acquired by Teradata), Nutonian, and others.

    The startup has raised $45 million in funding, and named valued clientele consist of a yoke of Fortune 500 corporations.

    What they do: give hybrid-cloud file storage for the enterprise

    yr situated: 2013

    Funding: $70+ million from Battery Ventures, Lightspeed project companions, CE Ventures and strategic buyers including Dell EMC, Cisco, and Western Digital

    Headquarters: Santa Clara, Calif.

    CEO: Erwan Menard, who prior to now served as President and COO at Scality

    difficulty they transparent up: whereas cloud adoption in the traffic continues to upward thrust, many corporations fight to comprise the cloud in ways that do sense for his or her certain consume instances. Too regularly, cloud infrastructure seems like a one-measurement-matches-all proposition, and a lot of companies agonize about releasing their sensitive statistics to third-party cloud providers.

    How they solve it: The Elastifile Cloud File gadget (ECFS) is software-described information infrastructure designed for the efficient management of dynamic workloads throughout heterogeneous environments. Elastifile’s data fabric allows clients to dynamically shift statistics between on-premises and cloud environments, scaling storage infrastructure as vital. through exposing records in the cloud via an commercial enterprise-grade file system, Elastifile makes it possible for customers to flee current purposes within the cloud devoid of needing to refactor them.

    Elastifile additionally manages statistics tiering between its file gadget and demur storage. Its cloud infrastructure can subsist dynamically spun up (or torn down) on demand, enabling firms to carefully match infrastructure spending to company want, and it offers granular information monitoring and policy-based controls.

    rivals encompass: Incumbents like NetApp and Dell EMC in addition to startups like Cohesity, Rubrik and Weka.IO customers include: eSilicon Corp., Silicon Therapeutics and HudsonAlpha Institute of Biotechnology

    Why they’re a irritated startup to monitor: Elastifile is backed by large VC funding from major companies, and their senior leadership team has plenty of event within the storage and cloud sectors, as well as a tune listing of a hit exits. CEO Erwan Menard up to now served as President and COO of both Scality and DDN Storage, and earlier than that he changed into vice president and benchmark manager of the Communications & Media options traffic Unit at HP.

    Shahar Frank, Elastifile’s CTO and co-founder, become a co-founder of XtremIO, the area he served as chief scientist except the company’s acquisition via EMC. Roni Luxenburg, Elastifile’s vice president of R&D and a co-founder, changed into vice president of R&D and director of software engineering at Qumranet, which become bought by using Redhat.

    ultimately, Elastifile makes a speciality of statistics to free it from app silos, while besides serving as a cloud gateway (CloudConnect) between an commercial enterprise’s on-premises functions and the cloud.

    What they do: give hybrid cloud infrastructure automation equipment

    year established: 2012

    Funding: $74 million raised in three rounds of funding from Mayfield, GGV Capital, Redpoint and true Ventures

    Headquarters: San Francisco, Calif.

    CEO: Dave McJannet, who was prior to now vp of advertising and marketing at GitHub and Hortonworks

    problem they resolve: one of the crucial simple challenges of cloud adoption these days is heterogeneity. How can operations, protection, and construction groups solemnize a consistent approach to provisioning, securing, connecting and running hybrid, multi-cloud infrastructures efficaciously?

    for many organizations, the movement to the cloud means navigating the transition from a comparatively static pool of homogeneous infrastructure in committed facts centers to a allotted fleet of servers spanning one or greater cloud providers. This skill you must rethink your approach to each layer of your infrastructure — provisioning, security, utility runtime and connecting this entire together.

    How they solve it: HashiCorp’s retort to cloud heterogeneity is to provide cloud infrastructure automation items at each and every layer of the cloud stack, from infrastructure provisioning and computerized community configuration to cloud safety and policy enforcement.

    HashiCorp begins with open-supply application and adds proprietary elements – usually concentrated on workflow automation, protection and interoperability – to aid organizations manipulate the frequently-chaotic shift to the cloud. HashiCorp argues that this strategy allows for the startup to focal point on assisting valued clientele with workflows, in preference to being concerned about selected underlying technologies, which can subsist at entire times altering anyway.

    in keeping with a corporation spokesperson, HashiCorp utility was downloaded 22 million instances in 2017. The company presents here products:

  • Terraform instantly provisions cloud infrastructure (public, deepest or hybrid) for any commercial enterprise application.

  • Consul provides a distributed service-networking layer to join, at ease and configure purposes throughout an commercial enterprise’s clouds.

  • Vault secures each purposes and infrastructure, proposing access manage, identity management and encryption.

  • Nomad is a cluster scheduler that helps a hard automate the deployment of any software on any cloud infrastructure.

  • rivals encompass: AWS (CloudFormation), Microsoft (Azure resource supervisor), CyberArk, and IBM Cloud

    purchasers include: Barclays, citadel, Pandora, Jet, Pinterest, section, Spaceflight and Cruise

    Why they’re a scorching startup to watch: HashiCorp has correct-tier valued clientele and has additionally secured $seventy four million in VC funding. in case you’re basing your service suite around open-source tasks, you can then consume that funding to obtain interoperability, construct out your sales pipeline, set up an exceptional company identity and entice the talent essential to grab market partake from incumbents.

    The company’s C-level executive group has loads of experience with successful exits, having helped lead IPOs from Hortonworks, recent Relic and BEA, as well as the acquisitions of SpringSource by using VMware (what became Pivotal) and Compose by using IBM.

    study extra: 10 sizzling internet of issues Startups

    What they do: supply a hybrid-cloud administration platform

    year established: 2016

    Funding: $forty nine million in three rounds of funding together with a $25 million string C round on September 12. Backers comprise a brand recent investor, HighBar partners, together with outdated buyers Atlantic Bridge Capital and Acero Capital.

    Headquarters: San Jose, Calif.

    CEO: Nariman Teymourian, who previously served as SVP and GM for HPE

    issue they remedy: existing IT stacks are siloed and complicated to connect. As enterprises migrate company-vital applications to the cloud, they find that the must: import on multiple companies, which slows deployment schedules; recruit and hold particularly knowledgeable technical group of workers in a tight labor market; and either dispose of or automate a cascade of pilot methods.

    furthermore, once recent purposes are up and running, the habitual hybrid-cloud-app ecosystem requires numerous systems to control it, which provides both complexity and cost.

    How they solve it: HyperCloud is a software-described, ingenious workload administration platform for hybrid clouds. HyperCloud offers what the startup calls an software Platform as a service (aPaaS) layer that helps development and deployment environments through a group of application capabilities that allows for functions to subsist developed, provisioned and scaled on-demand.

    The platform helps enterprises radically change latest virtualised purposes to containers, or with developed-in assist for regular app frameworks (Java, Hadoop, MySQL, .net, and so on.), to build recent cloud-native purposes from scratch. Containerized apps will besides subsist deployed to any cloud, public or private, and the management console tracks entire running apps, whereas besides automating the patching and upgrading of apps privilege through their lifecycle.

    HyperCloud’s console manages aid and cost usage and applies consistent governance policies for entire cloud materials to do certain that conclusion users obtain access to the resources they need whereas assembly cost and compliance pursuits.

    rivals consist of: AppOrbit, Apprenda, Cloudera, OpenShift and Pivotal

    shoppers consist of: IBM, U.S. Navy, MetricStream, Bukhatir community and Lycamobile

    Why they’re a scorching startup to observe: The company’s $forty nine million in funding is greater than ample to set up a beachhead in the broad-open hybrid-cloud app-building/administration area of interest.

    The senior administration group has stunning event. Chairman and CEO Nariman Teymourian got here to HyperGrid from HPE, where he changed into SVP and GM. just before HPE, he changed into CEO and Chairman at Gale applied sciences, guiding it to its a hit acquisition by Dell, and before that he became Chairman and CEO at QuikCycle, which itself changed into acquired via Gale.

    other C-degree pros formerly served in senior management positions at HPE, EMC, RSA, eMeter (bought by using Siemens), VCE and Cisco.

    The startup became centered two years ago and has already withhold collectively a lengthy list of on-the-listing valued clientele.

    What they do: deliver a move-cloud records administration platform

    year established: 2016

    Funding: JetStream is backed by means of an undisclosed volume of seed funding.

    Headquarters: San Jose, Calif.

    CEO: Tom Critser, who in the past served as ordinary manager of facts-core utility solutions at SanDisk

    difficulty they solve: The multi-billion-dollar marketplace for records coverage is abruptly relocating from on-premises hardware and utility to cloud-based mostly services. however, the rig accessible to provider suppliers for workload mobility and records insurance diagram are largely in line with legacy solutions originally designed for on-premises backup operations, now not cloud functions.

    How they transparent up it: JetStream utility helps cloud provider suppliers stream workloads to the cloud devoid of interruption. JetStream additionally offers statistics protection as an commercial enterprise service.

    JetStream information insurance policy constantly captures records in movement for replication, capturing it as it’s being written to storage. the usage of extravagant throughput, low-latency data management capabilities to connect the on-premises atmosphere to the cloud, the solution enables digital computer failover (business continuity), plenary information recovery (catastrophe recovery), and element-in-time rollback (continual records insurance plan).

    JetStream software has entered a partnership with VMware to give protection to cloud statistics. In VMware environments, JetStream captures and replicates data through an IO Filter. via endemic vSphere APIs, JetStream is capable of deliver a comprehensive facts protection service that’s built-in into vSphere devoid of software brokers, virtual appliances or different workarounds. This capacity that the cloud provider issuer can proffer facts-insurance diagram functions that benefit each virtualised workload and any on-premises compute and storage infrastructure, from shared storage to HCI, with a completely supported solution certified VMware in a position.

    rivals encompass: Veeam, Zerto, Veritas and Rubrik consumers encompass: JetStream does not yet maintain on-the-record consumers.

    Why they’re a scorching startup to observe: Tom Critser held essential positions at SanDisk – when it was acquired by using Western Digital in 2016 – and at FlashSoft (got by SanDisk) and RNA Networks (bought by course of Dell). different senior leaders held vice-president and above roles in businesses bought with the aid of Iona applied sciences, Western Digital and SanDisk. wealthy Petersen, co-founder and President, became vice chairman of advertising at Interwoven entire through its 1999 IPO.

    The company has an in depth relationship with VMware, giving it the capacity to carry certified VMware in a position facts-coverage capabilities as a white label offering to cloud carrier suppliers.

    These pluses overcome its want of VC funding and on-the-checklist valued clientele.

    What they do: deliver a hybrid-cloud platform that helps agencies automate IT operations

    yr situated: 2013

    Funding: $215 million. Backers encompass Andreessen Horowitz, T. Rowe price, KDT, Hewlett Packard business, Khosla Ventures, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Microsoft.

    Headquarters: San Francisco, Calif., and Hamburg, Germany

    CEO: Florian Leibert. in promote of founding Mesosphere, Leibert held lead engineering positions at Airbnb and Twitter.

    difficulty they remedy: Mainstream enterprises are more and more the usage of public-cloud infrastructure to scale their operations. besides the fact that children, cloud platform provider expenses may besides subsist unpredictable and particularly high. constructing applications using public-cloud platform services creates company and architectural hazards, because of expertise competition with cloud providers’ corporations and the inevitable vendor-lock.

    a further hardship is that public-cloud functions might besides no longer subsist purchasable in certain regions and/or edge computing environments.

    How they resolve it: Mesosphere completely automates platform-know-how implementation, deployment and operations on commodity infrastructure, so organizations can adopt recent enterprise-altering applied sciences (AI, machine gaining erudition of, containers) on the pace cloud providers present them. With Mesosphere, besides the fact that children, businesses are capable of granularly manipulate expenses, matching spend to enterprise dreams while besides avoiding vendor lock-in.

    Mesosphere automates implementation and operations for modern utility equipment, together with Kubernetes, desktop gaining erudition of tools like TensorFlow, and records services that encompass Apache Kafka, Cassandra and Spark.

    IT corporations using Mesosphere software can carry cloud platform features to developers and company devices, working these features on any cloud infrastructure in any datacenter or at any side location.

    opponents consist of: AWS, Microsoft Azure, Pivotal Cloud Foundry and red Hat Openshift shoppers consist of: Netflix, Uber, Verizon, Yelp, Cisco, Tommy Hilfiger, NBCUniversal and Royal Caribbean

    Why they’re a sizzling startup to observe: In 4 rounds of funding, Mesosphere has raised a watch-popping $215 million in funding. Its crew has an impressive history with each unicorns (Airbnb, Twitter) and exits (Marin utility and Shutterfly IPOs), and Mesosphere’s customer record is lengthy and lines distinct Fortune 500 groups.

    Mesosphere’s vision is to complicated cloud infrastructure privilege into a utility. They may additionally never consume the time period “utility,” but when you obtain rid of supplier-lock, compel down costs, and do cloud infrastructure and functions something you simply flip on and off like a light-weight change, smartly...

    What they do: provide a public side cloud platform

    year based: 2015

    Funding: $118,000 in seed funding

    Headquarters: ny, N.Y.

    CEO: Antonio Pellegrino, who prior to now founded LSQ.io, Circles.io and electronic Revolution network

    issue they remedy: As subsequent-generation, information-intensive functions akin to IoT, huge data, and AR/VR evolve and mature, an rising problem is network latency. If the community is congested or if the statistics core that the fragment gadget should communicate with is simply too distant, efficiency suffers, and a few actual-time purposes develop into impractical.

    How they remedy it: Mutable’s Public area Cloud platform provides a low-latency, high-security aspect cloud platform for utility developers, cloud providers and cable/telco operators.

    The Mutable Public side Cloud platform combines networking with a container orchestration gadget. builders deliver Mutable with a container picture, their code for an software or provider, and a policy that states the optimum latency and kindly of materials it requires. From there, Mutable immediately deploys the utility in keeping with conclusion person requests.

    When a person or rig requests the software, Mutable runs a brand recent container close that user or machine on exact and then removes it when it isn't in use. This strategy supplies reduce latency via conclusion user proximity.

    Mutable’s utility is deployed as a application layer that sits on proper of present servers and cloud solutions with companions that encompass cloud provider suppliers (similar to AWS) and regional datacenters (like Packet.net) flee by course of wireless and cable operators, creating a unified, federated cloud for developer consumers.

    through stirring cloud operations to the edge and reducing latency, Mutable argues that such technologies as IoT, AI, and AR/VR are now purchasable to a broader market.

    rivals consist of: Cloudflare, Zenlayer, Microsoft Azure and AWS

    valued clientele include: Hevo power, Owal

    Why they’re a sizzling startup to watch: regardless of handiest elevating seed cash, Mutable has already earned a few named clients. and founder and CEO Antonio Pellegrino has a track record of success with startups.

    Mutable competes not directly with startups comparable to Cloudflare and Zenlayer as well as incumbents like Microsoft and AWS. towards the incumbents, Mutable has the talents of providing a cloud-native “Public side Cloud,” in area of extending legacy on-premises platforms to the cloud. towards the different startups, Mutable has developed out an all-application platform that runs on present server infrastructure inside current cloud datacenters, which lowers fees, boosts agility and overcomes latency considerations through directing finish clients to the closest facts center, which is usually inside 25 miles.

    Mutable’s Public aspect Cloud concept brings to intellect SD-WAN, however rather than purchasing area in regional records facilities and building out its own application-described community, Mutable piggybacks on the operator’s latest server infrastructure. This offers a compelling deployment mannequin for software and cloud builders, who now not maintain to hold their personal public or private cloud footprint in order to obtain their apps and features close to finish clients.

    PrimaryIO

    What they do: give hybrid-cloud records management for traffic functions with tremendous datasets

    12 months established: 2014

    Funding: $8.5 million combined seed and string A funding from Accel partners, Partech Ventures, Exfinity Ventures

    Headquarters: Los Altos, Calif.

    CEO: Kumar Ganapathy, who up to now based Virident and served as its CEO and COO

    issue they remedy: businesses can subsist gold benchmark served by means of cloud providers in the event that they may resolve upon and pick various deployment models in line with software wants and traffic dreams. Legacy apps are likely to obtain in the means of this imaginative and prescient, youngsters, as enact records-intensive ones.

    because of this, “hybrid cloud” often skill in solemnize that organizations ought to cobble collectively incompatible private and public cloud functions in sub-foremost approaches.

    another problem is that the extremely advantageous tips kept in information-intensive, company-crucial apps tends to entice different closely related apps, a manner engineers consult with as “statistics gravity.”

    before businesses can overcome facts gravity to stream Important purposes with large datasets to the cloud, they should first map the app’s dependencies with core services, databases and safety practices, setting up information-lifecycle practices. And, of path, any dependencies impacting utility performance to the aspect that they require facts forklifts will create cloud migration delays, raise expenses and create cloud lock-in hazards.

    How they remedy it: PrimaryIO’s Hybrid Cloud records administration (HDM) software helps businesses create hybrid-cloud environments capable of running purposes in any cloud any area but with the statistics terminal on-premises and under commercial enterprise control. HDM decouples compute and storage to eradicate the data-gravity barrier, ameliorate application efficiency and prolong protection to the cloud.  HDM is architected to benefit businesses manage the gross facts-management lifecycle, within the process unlocking many consume circumstances that maintain been prior to now charge-prohibitive. firms can now search for at various compel apps in public clouds, as an example, hastily migrating workloads to public clouds for checking out or rolling them returned in-condo just as immediately. This besides skill that organizations can temporarily extend Important purposes with massive datasets to public clouds for seasonal spikes or one-time events, in preference to being compelled into all-or-nothing cloud commitments.

    opponents consist of: VMware, Cisco, Nutanix, HPE and Dell EMC  customers include: This startup does not currently maintain on-the-record valued clientele.

    Why they’re a sizzling startup to monitor: Kumar Ganapathy’s song listing successful exits is excellent. He centered Virident and served as its CEO and COO until its acquisition through HGST. earlier than that, he situated and served as CTO for VxTel, which became bought via Intel. other members of the senior crew held management positions at HGST, Western Digital, HP and Intel.

    The enterprise’s VC backing should subsist sufficient to establish a beachhead with early adopters, and its concept of pushing the boundaries of hybrid clouds by using specializing in records first places the assignment in suitable standpoint.

    Startup: Weka.IO

    What they do: supply a parallel file system that allows for groups to flee AI-based mostly and facts-intensive purposes in hybrid clouds

    year based: 2013

    Funding: $42M from Qualcomm Ventures, Norwest project partners, Gemini Israel Ventures, Viking global traders and Walden Riverwood Ventures

    Headquarters: San Jose, Calif.

    CEO: Liran Zvibel, who previously based and served as vice chairman of R&D for Fusic. earlier than that, he was a fundamental architect for the hardware platform at XIV, IBM’s grid-based storage equipment.

    difficulty they remedy: As organizations try to base selections on facts, many are working up in opposition t performance limitations posed through legacy computing infrastructures. as an example, many firms adopting next-generation AI and desktop gaining erudition of applications see restricted returns as a result of when the consume of legacy systems, they cannot entry the instant and constant movement of data crucial to obtain height performance.

    Weka.IO argues that functions tethered to legacy storage programs can't deliver the fundamental throughput needed to assist AI and computer studying workloads as a result of they were engineered privilege through a time when slower networking applied sciences had been the regular. due to this fact, the data gets bottlenecked between the storage and compute layers.

    How they solve it: Weka.IO’s low-latency flash-optimized parallel file device is designed to accelerate compute-intensive purposes through ensuring a continuing supply of facts to the functions.

    Weka.IO’s Matrix is a utility-primarily based, scale-out storage retort that offers all-flash performance on NVMe, SAS or SATA storage. The application can besides subsist flee on commodity X86 server infrastructure, deployed on-premises and in public or hybrid clouds.

    With Matrix, organisations are able to dynamically scale performance impartial of capacity in response to software wants. The application may besides subsist deployed as a dedicated storage appliance or hyperconverged with the applications on Ethernet and InfiniBand networks.

    rivals include: IBM, Dell EMC, Elastifile, Hedvig and ioFabric  consumers encompass: TuSimple, Zebra, Mellanox, Innoviz, and ICarbonx

    Why they’re a scorching startup to watch: Weka.IO has ample funding and an outstanding senior management crew in area. Liran Zvibel (CEO) and Omri Palmon (COO), two of Weka.IO’s co-founders, up to now led engineering and advertising at storage startup, XIV, which changed into received by using IBM, and the startup already has a handful of named valued clientele.

    That may soundless supply the enterprise satisfactory runway to carve out a workable niche in the hybrid-cloud infrastructure market. Their early ambitions – compute-intensive niches that encompass AI, machine gaining erudition of, lifestyles sciences and manufacturing – are quickly-growth, land-seize markets that present moderately stage playing fields towards incumbents.

    (Jeff Vance is the founding father of Startup50.com, a web site that discovers, analyzes, and ranks tech startups. result him on Twitter, @JWVance, or join with him on LinkedIn.)

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    350-023 exam Dumps Source : CCIE(R) Written: WAN Switching

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    Test denomination : CCIE(R) Written: WAN Switching
    Vendor denomination : Cisco
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  • 30.2 Between Router and Layer-3 Switch | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    30.2 Between Router and Layer-3 Switch

    by aryoba terminal modified: 2011-12-28 08:23:19

    Hopefully this will benefit settle the long running confusion about Layer-3 switches in this forum...

    Some content fragment of this FAQ is taken out of the CiscoPress reserve Cisco LAN Switching, pp.451-453; authored by Kennedy Clark CCIE #2175 CCSI, and Kevin Hamilton CCSI Copyright� 1999 Cisco Press

    In general, a Layer-3 switch (routing switch) is primarily a switch (a Layer-2 device) that has been enhanced or taught some routing (Layer 3) capabilities. A router is a Layer-3 device that simply enact routing only. In the case of a switching router, it is primarily a router that may consume switching technology (high-speed ASICs) for accelerate and performance (as well as besides supporting Layer-2 bridging functions).

    As illustration, here are some examples

    Layer-2 switchesCisco: leavening 2950, 2960 series

    Layer-3 switches or routing switchesCisco: leavening 3550, 3560, 3750, 4500, 6500 seriesJuniper: EX series

    Routers (with some bridging and/or security features) or switching routersCisco: 1800, 1900, 2600, 2800, 2900, 3700, 3800, 3900, 7200, 7600, ASR 1000 seriesJuniper: MX series, J series, M series

    Several factors maintain created significant confusion surrounding the subject of Layer-3 switch and Layer-3 switching. Some of this bewilderment arises from the recent merging of several technologies. In the past, switches and routers maintain been sever and distinct devices. The term switch was reserved for hardware-based platforms that generally functioned at Layer-2. For example, ATM switches accomplish hardware-based forwarding of fixed-length cells whereas Ethernet switches consume MAC addresses to do forwarding decisions. Conversely, the term router has been used to mention to a device that runs routing protocols to learn the Layer-3 topology and makes forwarding decisions based on hierarchical Layer-3 addresses. Because of the complexity of these tasks, routers maintain traditionally been software-based devices. Routers maintain besides performed a wide variety of "high touch" and value added features such as tunneling, data-link switching (DLSw), protocol translation, access lists, and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) relay.

    In early Cisco switches (i.e. leavening 3500 switches), there are only basic Layer-2 capabilities such as bridging and switching. With newer models (i.e. leavening 3550 or 3560 switches), there are besides some routing capabilities such as terminating multiple Layer-3 interfaces and running dynamic routing protocol. In router world, early Cisco routers (i.e. 1600 or 2500 model), there are only basic Layer-3 capabilities such as running dynamic routing protocol, terminating Serial ports, and running non-IP protocols such as IPX and SNA. With newer models (i.e. 1700, 1800, 2600 or 2800 models), there are besides some Layer-2 capabilities such as bridging and switching. To add in the mix, there are some WIC (WAN Interface Cards) and NM (Network Modules) with Ethernet ports supporting bridging and switching in those newer router models even further such as WIC-4ESW Ethernet Switching card for 1700 series, HWIC-4ESW High-Density Ethernet Switching card for 1800 and 2800 series, and NM-16ESW Ethernet Switching module for 2600 and 2800 series.

    As a broad category, routing switches consume hardware to create shortcut paths through the middle of the network, by bypassing the traditional software-based router. However, unlike traditional routers that utilize general-purpose CPUs for both control-plane and data-plane functions, Layer-3 switches consume high-speed application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in the data plane. By removing CPUs from the data-plane forwarding path, wire-speed performance can subsist obtained. This results in a much faster version of the traditional router. In Cisco world, this routing switch ASIC technology implementation as example applies to leavening 6500 switch series. These kindly of switches are typically blade or module based switch which you maintain to specify which "switch brain" (called Supervisor Engine in Cisco world) and which port modules you like the switch to have.

    In the case of a switching router as primarily a router that uses switching technology (high-speed ASICs) for accelerate and performance (as well as besides supporting Layer-2 bridging functions), there are Cisco 7600 string and Juniper MX string routers as examples. These kindly of routers are typically blade or module-based router which you maintain to specify which "router brain" (also called Supervisor Engine in Cisco world) and which port modules you like the router to have.

    As a note, the Cisco 7600 string router Supervisor Engine modules are compatible with the Cisco leavening 6500 string switch due to identical architecture between the router and the switch. In other words, you could consume the very Supervisor Engine model on either Cisco 7600 string router or leavening 6500 string switch. In other words, routing switch and switching router concept no longer applies with identical architecture implementation.

    Some network topologies as illustrations

    1. solitary Router2. solitary Router with multiple LAN subnets3. solitary Router with solitary connection to a switch and with multiple LAN subnets (also known as "Router on A Stick" design)4. solitary Router with Layer-3 Switch and with multiple LAN subnets5. Multiple Routers with multiple unmanaged (dumb) switches and with multiple LAN subnetsOf the switching devices and terminology variety released by vendors, Layer-4 and Layer-7 switching maintain received considerable attention. In general, these approaches mention to the capability of a switch to act on Layer 4 (transport layer) information contained in packets. For example, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port numbers can subsist used to do decisions affecting issues such as security and property of Service (QoS). However, rather than being viewed as a third character of campus switching devices, these should subsist seen as a logical extension and enhancement to the two types of switches already discussed. In fact, both routing switches and switching routers can accomplish these upper-layer functions.

    For further understanding in differences between the topologies with advantages of one over the other and more, check out the following FAQ»Cisco Forum FAQ »Should I consume Layer-3 switch or router?

    by rolande edited by aryoba terminal modified: 2017-02-24 17:14:45

    Introduction

    In general, you want to consume a router when most of the time the device does routing. Likewise, you want to consume a switch when when most of the time the device does switching. This statement becomes more manifest when dealing with larger network like an ISP or large corporation.

    Example in ISP is that they consume routers (at least 7600 series) to maintain plenary view of BGP (the edge router). As for their "internal network", they consume layer-3 switches (usually leavening 6500 series). In smaller environment, companies consume something like 800, 1800, or 2800 string router as the Internet router and/or WAN router to their private WAN point-to-point, Frame Relay, or MPLS network while they consume leavening 3560 string Layer-2/3 switches for local routing between different departments or between servers and hosts, and for some Spanning-Tree with Layer-2 access switches (if any).

    The concept of creating Layer-3 switch is basically to efficiently enact inter-VLAN routing or to enact internal routing between multiple broadcast domains (multiple LAN where each LAN has its own subnet) while keeping Layer-2 features such as spanning tree and trunking. However to deal with "border" or "edge" of the network where there are less spanning tree or trunking (less Layer-2) or where there is a need for Layer-2 network termination (edge network), a router is used since a router is basically designed to manipulate traffic across the edge or the edge network.

    For more info, you can check out the following FAQ:»Cisco Forum FAQ »What is the dissimilarity between a Layer-3 switch and a router?

    Following is illustration of using Layer-3 switch to enact inter-VLAN routing where the LAN 1 is user network, LAN 2 is server network, and LAN 3 is guest network.Sample Configuration of Layer-3 Switch design implementation

    Router

    Switch

    Keep in mind that Layer-3 switches' prices in general are not cheap from SOHO users or diminutive businesses' perspective since Layer-3 switches are designed for organizations that need physical hardware separation between router and switch when routing is in need. Therefore should there subsist cheap Layer-3 switches available, SOHO users or diminutive businesses are more than welcome to consume them.

    When diminutive businesses need to enact inter-VLAN routing (i.e. data interchange between multiple departments) or internal routing between LAN subnets (multiple broadcast domains), there are some "cheap" and might soundless subsist trustworthy solutions beside using layer-3 switches.

    One solution is to consume a "Router On A Stick" design. Such design consists of a router and a layer-2 switch that are capable of doing trunking. Following is illustration.Sample Configuration of "Router On A Stick" design implementation

    Router

    Switch

    Another solution that is probably cheaper is to setup multiple unmanaged (dumb) switches with besides multiple routers. While "Router On A Stick" design means solitary router terminates multiple LAN subnets, this second solution means each router terminates its own LAN subnet. Following is illustration.Sample Configuration of multiple router design implementation

    1. Static Routing

    When there are only few LAN (broadcast domain), then static routing network design should subsist sufficient.

    Internet Router

    Router 1

    Router 2

    Router 3

    When there are more LAN (broadcast domain) in area or when there are multiple connections to achieve the very destination (such as having multiple ISP to connect to the Internet), then network design based on dynamic routing might subsist more scalable than static route approach. Following is illustration.Sample Configuration of multiple router and Layer-3 switch design implementation

    2. Dynamic Routing

    In this sample configuration, RIP as dynamic routing protocol is used to provide dynamic inter-connectivity between two buildings. You may notice that RIP as the dynamic routing protocol in area decides that machines within building #1 consume ISP 1 to depart out to the Internet as default, and will only consume ISP #2 through point-to-point link between the two switches when ISP #1 becomes unavailable. Similarly, machines within building #2 consume ISP 2 to depart out to the Internet as default, and will only consume ISP #1 when ISP #2 becomes unavailable.

    Router 1

    Switch 1

    Router 2

    Switch 2

    Whichever solution to choose, you should always consume managed switch instead of unmanaged switch since in general, managed switch is more trustworthy and has more functionality to tune.

    Connectivity to traffic Partner's Network

    Now let's review the following network topology which is typical datacenter layout or Ethernet-based network topology.You maintain a network consisting of three switches (B1, B2, B3) and there is a traffic partner's network consisting of besides three switches (A1, A2, A3). Each network may or may not flee Spanning Tree to avoid Layer-2 network loop. The objective is to interconnect your network and the traffic partner's network anywise with less rig in place, less complicated, reliable, and most importantly you soundless maintain your network control and administration.

    One may imply that you simply flee cables between switches A3 and B3 running layer-2 connectivity. By having Layer-2 connectivity, there is a danger of Layer-2 network loop which can bring down network immediately.

    From different perspective, you may maintain to surrender your Layer-2 network control over to your traffic colleague since Layer-2 connectivity requires plenary control by solitary network administration and more likely, your traffic colleague is the solitary network administration rather than yourself. When you maintain internal Layer-2 network within switches B1, B2, or B3; then you lose control of those internal network administrations as well which is typically unwanted. In other words, permitting your traffic colleague to subsist the solitary network administration requires such switches B1, B2, and B3 to subsist dedicated switches for external connectivity to traffic colleague and no internal Layer-2 network is allowed.

    Should there subsist a need to maintain internal Layer-2 network within switches B1, B2, and B3 while having external connection to your traffic network, Layer-3 connectivity should subsist your best bet. Even though there is a thing called Layer-3 network loop, such loop does not bring down network severely as Layer-2 network loop. Further, you soundless maintain your network integrity while having external connection to your traffic network with Layer-3 connectivity between your network and traffic partner's.

    At this point, let's consider Layer-3 connectivity between your network and traffic partner's. For the sake of illustration, assume the following.

    Your network: 10.10.10.0/24Your traffic partner's network: 100.32.10.0/24Point-to-point WAN between your network and traffic partner's: 1.1.1.0/30

    The internal IP subnet you consume within your network is 10.10.10.0/24. For this connectivity, your traffic network uses 100.32.10.0/24 for your network to reach.

    Since there will subsist Layer-3 connectivity, there must subsist a device within your network that is able to enact routing. One solution is to withhold a router between Switch A3 and Switch B3 like followingNote that the router is on your network edge since the router terminates your Layer-2 network to connect to your traffic partner's network.

    The configurations are the following.

    Switch B1

    Switch B2

    Switch B3

    Router

    When your Switch B3 is a Layer-2/3 switch, then you don't need to withhold a router between your network and your traffic partner's since you can utilize the Switch B3 routing functionality to achieve the traffic partner's 100.32.10.0/24 network. No additional router means less rig to deal with, redeem physical space, less power consumption, and simplify network topology. The network topology and configuration are as follow.Switch B1

    Switch B2

    Switch B3

    Additional Sample Design and Configuration»Cisco Forum FAQ »Various Network Design using Routers, Layer-3 Switches, and more

    Discussions

    »[Config] Cisco 2960 InterVlan Routing»[CCNA] Cisco 3 tier design selection»Suggestion for cisco 3560 Needed»HELP...Conguration not working...Cisco 1961»[Config] What would the switch and router configuration subsist ???

    Feedback received on this FAQ entry:

  • Fantastic stuff, very useful.

    2015-09-20 00:21:04

  • It helped me immensely, I am currently a student at UMUC so I cited this post. Thanks

    2015-01-23 08:28:56

  • Nice work, very well written article was not expecting it to subsist this grandiose thank you

    2013-09-12 13:13:37

  • Great document thank you, this has benefit me out so much

    2013-08-07 14:57:19

  • very Knowledgeable document .great..

    2013-06-13 06:10:08

  • Great document, really helpful and very well explained and straight to the point. Top marks to author!

    2013-01-21 05:54:24

  • thank you very much (dynamic routing)

    2011-11-09 04:03:56

  • Excellent and very usefull training. Thanks to the author.

    2011-10-30 03:01:31

  • This is an excellent article, very helpful and descriptive.

    2011-07-27 16:54:40

  • MATERIAL IN THIS DOCUMANT WAS SATISFACTORY. I GOT MY ANS. THANKS TO THE uphold TEAM OF SUCH DOCUMENT.

    2010-05-20 08:49:04

  • by aryoba terminal modified: 2015-11-17 16:08:36

    As of this FAQ posted, the current Cisco leavening layer-3 switches are 3560X, 3750X, 4500X series, 4900 series, and 6500 series. In addition there are besides Nexus 500, 6000, and 7000 series. The following are illustrations of layer-3 switch with examples of leavening 3550 and 3560 feature and capabilities. Note that leavening 3550 is considered EOL and the current replacement is the 3560X.

    »RE: can a l3 switch with plenary dynamic protocol set»Layer 3 Switches? Recommendations

    by aryoba terminal modified: 2013-02-12 11:22:48

    Prerequisite reading»Cisco Forum FAQ »Should I consume Layer-3 switch or router?

    The above FAQ link shows some basic network setup using routers and switches. Following is more network design samples that are besides common in many organizations.

    Sample 1:Background

    * This sample configuration assumes the Router to enact NAT/PAT, firewall to enact statefull firewall, and Layer-3 Switch to act as both switch and router to route internal traffic. To learn more about NAT/PAT, check out the following FAQ for detail »Cisco Forum FAQ »NAT, PAT, Port Forward, Internet and Server Access: Introduction and Practices

    Sample 1 Configuration

    Router

    PIX Firewall

    Switch

    Sample 2:Background

    Switch* The Layer-3 switches act as Spanning-Tree Root Bridges of entire switches and as HSRP service providers. For prefatory info on Root Bridge, check out the following link: Understanding and Configuring Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) on leavening Switches. For prefatory info on HSRP, check out the following link: irritated Standby Router Protocol Features and Functionality* Rapid Spanning Tree protocol is used to provide faster convergence yet stable network. For more info on Rapid Spanning Tree, check out the following link: Understanding Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (802.1w)* For some VLAN, the Layer-3 Switch 1 is the Root Bridge primary while the Layer-3 Switch 2 is the backup. For other VLAN, the Layer-3 Switch 2 is the Root Bridge primary while the Layer-3 Switch 1 is the backup.* Similarly; for some VLAN, the Layer-3 Switch 1 is the HSRP primary while the Layer-3 Switch 2 is the backup. For other VLAN, the Layer-3 Switch 2 is the HSRP primary while the Layer-3 Switch 1 is the backup.* For VLAN connection reliability, the very Layer-3 switch should subsist for both Root Bridge and HSRP primary* In this sample configuration; VLAN 5, 7, 100 Root Bridge and HSRP primaries are at Layer-3 Switch 1 while VLAN 1, 20, 200 Root Bridge and HSRP primaries are at Layer-3 Switch 2* To avoid unnecessary traffic flow, only some VLAN is allowed to pass through on some trunks between switches* There is IP routing in area between Layer-3 switches and the firewalls

    Firewall* The firewall could subsist either PIX Firewall or ASA, running OS 7.x or later* Firewall setup is LAN-based Active/Standby failover, which in a sense is similar to HSRP/VRRP mechanism where the firewall primary interface IP address is the "virtual" gateway for the interface subnet to achieve other network. For more info on PIX/ASA Active/Standby failover, check out the following link: How Failover Works on the Cisco Secure PIX Firewall* The firewall acts as both Internet firewall and IPSec VPN Concentrator. For more info on this, check out the forum's FAQ »Cisco Forum FAQ »Configure PIX/ASA as both Internet Firewall and VPN Concentrator

    (The Internet or Outside) Router/Switch* There is a basic Internet firewall at the router to filter absolute questionable inbound traffic from the Internet to the network. For more info on this, check out the forum's FAQ »Cisco Forum FAQ »Basic Internet Firewall for Routers without IOS image Firewall feature* There is no need for the router to enact stateful firewall since there is already the firewall appliance (PIX/ASA) to enact the stateful firewall functionality

    AAA Command Set* entire Cisco devices on this sample configuration uses proper AAA command set for security reason. For more info on this, check out the forum's FAQ »Cisco Forum FAQ »Secure and Monitor Network Access with AAA (TACACS/RADIUS) and Privilege Level

    Sample 2 Configuration

    Router

    Switch (Layer-3 capable)

    Firewall 1 (Active)

    Firewall 2 (Standby)

    Layer 3 Switch 1

    Layer 3 Switch 2

    Sample 3:Background

    * The Bluecoat ProxySG appliances enact WCCP with routers and switch that uphold WCCP version 2 "redirect out" command. More detail on WCCP can subsist establish here: »Cisco Forum FAQ »WCCP with Router/MSFC and Blue Coat ProxySG* Site that has two Internet connections (the HQ) does Internet traffic load partake which some subnets Take ISP 1 as primary and other subnets Take ISP 2 as primary* The ProxySG appliances intercept outbound traffic from Inside machines out to the Internet and initiate outbound connection using the appliances IP address on behalf of Inside machines as fragment of the proxy mechanism* Note that the proxy mechanism could screw up the BGP load partake mechanism. Therefore any BGP load partake mechanism must occur before the traffic is intercepted or proxied. This is the understanding why the HQ has Routers 1 and 2 to enact the WCCP for the interception, redirection, and proxy mechanism and let the Layer-3 Switches 1 and 2 enact the BGP load partake mechanism.* Similar Routers 1 and 2 are not needed in arm site since the site only has solitary Internet connection and no Internet load share.* entire Outbound BGP load partake mechanism at HQ site can subsist seen as "too complex" from arm site perspective, hence the understanding of HQ site has BGP Confederation in place. For more info on BGP Confederation, check out the following link: BGP Case Studies: BGP Confederation

    Sample 3 Configuration

    Internet Router 1:

    Internet Router 2:

    Firewall 1

    Firewall 2

    Router 1

    Router 2

    Blue Coat ProxySG1 configuration

    1. Interface2. WCCP3. Static Routes for Home Router IP Address ReachabilityLayer-3 Switch 1

    Layer-3 Switch 2

    WAN 1 Router

    WAN 2 Router

    Layer-3 Switch

    Blue Coat ProxySG2 configuration

    1. Interface2. WCCP3. Static Routes for Home Router IP Address ReachabilityFirewall

    Internet Router:

    Discussions

    »DHCP Question»Design concept!

    by aryoba terminal modified: 2015-08-17 09:20:21

    Introduction

    In general, the consume of HSRP in the context of vPC does not require any special configuration. With vPC (referred as multi-chassis link-agg), only the lively HSRP interface answers ARP requests, but both HSRP interfaces (active and standby) can forward traffic. If an ARP request coming from a server arrives on the secondary HSRP device, it is forwarded to the lively HSRP device through the peer link.

    Note that on Nexus vPC configuration, ARP is handled by the control plane lively while data packets are handled by either VPC peer.

    The significant dissimilarity between the HSRP implementation of a non-vPC configuration (traditional HSRP configuration) compared with a vPC configuration is that the HSRP MAC addresses of a vPC configuration are programmed with the G (gateway) flag on both systems, compared with a non-vPC configuration where only the lively HSRP interface can program the MAC address with the G flag.

    Given this fact, routable traffic can subsist forwarded by both the vPC primary device (where HSRP is primary) and the vPC secondary device (where HSRP is secondary), with no need to route this traffic to the HSRP primary device. Without this flag, traffic sent to the MAC address would not subsist routed.

    Dual-active HSRP on Nexus is where both devices will forward traffic destined to the HSRP vMAC. To actually do traffic for one vMAC achieve both devices, it needs to Come in via a vPC. The master however soundless does the entire the ARP replies.

    HSRP is only active/active if you're using vPC on Nexus. If vPC is being used both vPC peers will route traffic with a destination MAC of the HSRP virtual MAC (as well as their local MAC's).

    Further, there is a "peer gateway" feature with vPC, that allows both vPC peers to route traffic going to the HSRP vMAC, its on local MAC, or the local MAC of the vPC peer. L3 traffic that one of the Nexus boxes forwards on to the subnet has the router's local MAC for the SVI as the source. Some poorly behaved devices just reply straight to that local MAC rather than doing an ARP to find the MAC of the default gateway. The peer gateway feature is needed to allow these broken devices to work when vPC is being used.

    If you're not using vPC, HSRP on Nexus works just like it does on anything else.

    Further Info

    HSRP, vPC and the vPC peer-gateway CommandNexus 7000 string Switches Using HSRP Configuration ExamplevPC and HSRPChapter 3:PortChannel: Fundamental Concepts (pdf file)

    Discussion

    »[HELP] HSRP Question»[HELP] Transit VRF Question

    by aryoba terminal modified: 2015-02-17 13:59:58


    Steven Spielberg to result up WAR HORSE with ROBOPOCALYPSE | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    partake TWEET 0

    steven_spielberg_robopocalypse_slice_01

    Back in March, the sci-fi action film Robopocalypse became one of the many films added to the list of potential directing projects for Steven Spielberg.  In May, Spielberg selected the drama War Horse as his recent film and filming is currently underway for a December 2011 release.  But Spielberg hasn’t left Robopocalypse behind as Deadline reports that the film will subsist his follow-up to War Horse.  Spielberg plans to shoot Robopocalypse in January 2012 and release it through Disney’s Touchstone Pictures in 2013.

    Robopocalypse is based on an upcoming novel by Daniel H. Wilson, who previously penned How to Survive a Robot Uprising.  Although Wilson was soundless in the middle of writing Robopocalypse back in March, Spielberg was impressed enough by the material that he was having storyboards done while pages from the novel were being translated into a screenplay by Drew Goddard (Cloverfield).  Wilson’s novel is due to hit shelves in June 2011.

    Hit the jump for a refresher on entire of the projects that will continue to sit on the backburner while Spielberg plans robot doom.

    Most notable among Spielberg’s long-in-development potential directing project is his Abraham Lincoln biopic, Lincoln.  That project has been in the hopper for so long that Liam Neeson, who was attached to play the 16th President, left the movie because he didn’t contemplate it was going anywhere.

    Spielberg has besides been linked to Interstellar written by Jonathan Nolan, a biopic on George Gershwin, and adaptations Flowers for Algernon, The 39 Clues, and Pirates Latitude.  He was recently rumored to subsist considering a film based on the Bee Gees.  If you want to play the prediction game on what Spielberg will enact after Robopocalypse, his filmography has a pattern of switching between blockbuster commercial fare and cumbersome drama.  Maybe Lincoln will finally obtain his chance to shine in 2013.

    steven_spielberg_01

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